Hind brain (Rhombincephalan) the hind brain contain the brain stem and the medulla oblongata (Myelencephalon) form by the anterior thickening of basal plate and posterior alar plate separated by sulcus in the fourth ventricle. The hind brain continues to form the spinal cord. As like cerebrum, cerebellum has fissured mass in the posterior cranial fossa attached with brain stem by three pairs of peduncles. From the base of the brain stem the 12 pairs of cranial nerves are arising. The motor nuclei of the IX, X, XI and XII cranial nerves line in the fourth ventricle is formed by the basal plate neurons.
4.9) and represent the portion of the vein at the optic disc as it exits the eye (I), the intra-neural portion (II), the region through the nerve sheath where it crosses the subarachnoid space (III) and the extra-neural portion where the central retinal vein traverses outside the nerve to join the ophthalmic vein (IV), respectively. In the portion of the vein towards the rear of the eye (compartment I), the elastic wall is externally surrounded by vitreous humour at the IOP, while in the portion of the vein passing through the nerve sheath (compartment III), the elastic wall is externally surrounded by CSF at the ICP. Coupling between the IOP and ICP dictates the onset of the RVP. Other more sophisticated models for the elastic response of the vein are available, including for example its bending stiffness, but this study focuses on the simplest possible model. In compartment II the retinal vein is assumed to pass down the center of the optic nerve and so is unsheathed by nerve and connective tissue; therefore the vein wall can be assumed rigid.
The convexed bulge is created by the presence of the middle ethmoidal air cells and as a result, it contains an ostium that drains this space. Located anteroinferiorly to the ethmoid bulla, and posterior to the uncinate process, is a curved furrow called the hiatus semilunaris. It contains the maxillary ostium and an accessory maxillary ostium towards the inferior aspect of the groove and the ostia of the anterior ethmoidal air cells anteriorly. This groove is continuous with the ethmoidal infundibulum, which courses superiorly and deep to the anterior aspect of the middle concha and lateral to the orbital plate of the ethmoid bone. The frontal sinus is therefor able to communicate with, and drain its contents into the ostiomeatal complex because of the connection between its frontonasal duct (recess) and the ethmoidal infundibulum.
The structure of intertebral disc is complex. Nucleus pulposus has a well organized matrix which is laid down by relatively few cells. Nucleus pulposus is a gelatinous structure present in the centre and is contained in the periphery by annulus which is collagenous and cartilaginous, and two cartilaginous endplates cephalad and caudad. Collagen fibers from annulus continue and attach to the surrounding tissues, tying into the vertebral body along its rim, cartilaginous endplates superiorly and inferiorly and anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments. Bony endplate and cartilaginous endplates were connected by calcified cartilage.
In this more common form — called non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) — new blood vessels aren't growing (proliferating). When one has non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy, the walls of the blood vessels in retina weaken. Tiny bulges (microaneurysms) protrude from the vessel walls of the smaller vessels, sometimes leaking fluid and blood into the retina. Larger retinal vessels can begin to dilate and become irregular in diameter, as well. Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy can progress from mild to severe, as more blood vessels become blocked.
Each renal artery is divided into anterior and posterior branches (presegmental arteries) at the hilium of the kidney. The further division of the arteries is into following branches apical, upper, middle, inferior and posterior. ARTERIAL VARIATIONS It has been established that each of the segments is supplied by their own segmental artery without any collateral connection therefore the importance of each and every branch is equal and needs proper evaluation(33). The variations that we observe are probably the result of anomalous degeneration of the rete arteriosum urogenitale and the rest of the mesonephric arteries. This may explain why there is some variation in the point of origin of those arteries that persist to form the final segmental arteries of the adult kidney.
Elevation of the intraocular pressure (fluid pressure inside the eye) is considered as a risk factor for some ocular disorders specially glaucoma, which can eventually lead to blinding. Current treatments for this disease focus on lowering intraocular pressure (Zeng et al. 2010). Such pressure elevation within the eye is believed to be due to an increase in the resistance to aqueous humour outflow from the eye, but the exact origin of this resistance increase has not been determined yet (Johnson 2006). The physiological aspects of aqueous humour outflow pathway have been extensively reviewed (R Tripathi 1974; RC Tripathi 1974; Bill 1975; Bill & Mäepea 1994; Gong et al.
The functions of connective tissues are giving the structural framework of the human body, transport fluids and dissolve materials, protect important and delicate organs and store energy. (Frederic H. Martini, William C.Ober, Judi L.Nath, Edwin
The primary organ that the body uses for the sense of touch is the skin, the largest organ of the body as it covers the entirety of it. While some believe that the epidermis, the outermost layer of the skin, is the only place where the touch is sensed, somatosensation occurs within the body as well. Somatosensation can be broken into mechanoreception, thermosensation, and nociception - sensing contact, heat, and pain, respectively. The skin can be divided into three layers - the epidermis, the dermis, and the hypodermis. Each is vital to the sensation of touch.