The researcher also needs supporting data to analyze the novel therefore; the researcher uses previous researches and books related to the thesis. The researcher has to read about deconstruction and absurdism as philosophical and literary approaches, which depends on postmodernism in order to analyze the novel. There are some available books in the culture of these theories such as Deconstruction as narrative interruption by James Gilbert Walsh, The absurd in Literature by Neil Cornwell, Double Reading: Postmodernism after Deconstruction by Jeffrey T. Nealon, and Postmodern Literature by Ian Gregson. As Kafka is interested in writing about absurdity of existentialism, books like Kafka and his Precursors by Jorge Luis Borges, and Kafka's Jewish Language: The Hidden Openness of Tradition by David Suchoff, and Kafka: A Guide for the Perplexed by Clayton Koelb are helpful. The sources related to Franz Kafka are variable because most of critics see that Kafka is a postmodern writer who tries to bring out all what related to the social and political conflict as well as stating the idea of free play inside the language from a postmodern perspective.
439). Freud 's theory suggest that personality is made up of parts each responsible for a different purpose. The id, is a part of the personality which reduces the, tensions related to sex, aggression, and other primitive impulses" (pg. 440). The ego section of a personality, "retrains individual energy to maintain an individual 's safety and to help a person be a member or society" (pg.
According to Myers(1989) New Historicism is a literary theory based on the idea that literature should be studied and interpreted within the context of both the history of the author and the history of the critic. Based on the literary criticism of Stephen Greenblatt and influenced by the philosophy of Michel Foucault, New Historicism acknowledges not only that a work of literature is influenced by its author 's times and circumstances, but that the critic 's response to that work is also influenced by his environment, beliefs, and prejudices. A New Historicist looks at literature in a wider historical context, examining both how the writer 's times affected the work and how the work reflects the writer 's times, in turn recognizing that current cultural contexts color that critic 's conclusions. New Historicism, then, underscores the impermanence of literary criticism. Current literary criticism is affected by and reveals the beliefs of our times in the same way that literature reflects and is reflected by its own historical contexts.
It usually becomes a causal explanation for some analysis of the literary work and thus influence the story. The extrinsic elements are the elements giving the influence on intrinsic or basic construction of fairy tale. Based on this, the extrinsic elements that connects with the novel are the three theories developed by experts which are Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, and Erik Erikson. 2.2.1 Freud’s Psychoanalytic Criticism Sigmund Freud was a neurologist and is considered to be the father of psychoanalysis, a method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst. He was born on May 6, 1856 in Moravia, the Austrian Empire.
During the Modernist movement, many writers were inspired to express their thoughts on events that occured at the time. Their thoughts were expressed in various forms; some being through novels, and others through “literary critiques”, as a way to portray their perspective on the movement. Modern texts include: F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby, J.D Salinger’s The Catcher In The Rye, and S. Irenaeus’ The Critique of Modernism. Though all these authors took different approaches in portraying their views, they all managed to shares common themes; one prevalent theme being the rejection of the past. Modernism, as a literary movement, sparked creativity in many writers throughout the nation.
The writer’s experience is used as inspiration for his/her creations. The work may be a stylized retelling of an event or it may even be set in an alternate universe where events are based on true stories and ideas. These works are passed on from generation to generation and they continue to be a way of documenting the different trends and ideas that have come and gone. The second is that literature shapes society . Different literary texts contain their own life lessons and morals.
What is literary criticism? Literary criticism is a " method that used to study , discuss, evaluate and interpret literary works including its classification by genre , analysis of structure , and judgment of value", (this definition was by Professors Karl Beckson and Arthur Ganz). The different school of literary criticism will provide us with lenses which ultimately reveal important aspects of the literary work. Each lens is sensitive to a point of view, symbol, tone, irony, and other literary techniques, but each also casts those elements in a special light. Each lens will raises its own types of questions and issues , and therefore each approach will has its advantages and disadvantages .
In this paper I aim to trace the relation between language and literature. It is very clear from the essays of many 19th and 20th century philosophers and socio-linguists that language influences an individual’s thoughts and which consequently influence his ideas and writings. Raymond William, Bakhtim, Gadamer, Adorno and some other thinkers have invested many years for their lives in proving that language, literature and culture are inter-related and a writer can't write in isolation however objective he pretends to be; this influence of a particular culture and society of his epoch can't be escaped. Stephan Greenblatt's "Culture" also defines culture and its role in literature and literary criticism. Thus there is an unbreakable relation
2. 3 The importance of Freudian approach in literature There are certain psychoanalytic concepts expressed by Sigmund Freud that can be applied to interpret literary texts. Most of the literary texts, like dreams, articulate the secret unconscious desires and concerns of the author, that a literary work is expression of the author’s own neuroses. One may psychoanalyze a particular character within a literary work, but it is usually assumed that all such characters are outcrops of the author’s psyche. The interesting side of this approach is that it confirms the importance of literature, as it is built on a literary key for the making out.
Figurative language is important to literature in relation to understanding and analysing a text. In my study of figurative language I 've seen how it affects texts to include the multitude of meanings that language can have and how it encourages the reader to imagine what the author is saying rather than the literal meaning of the text. It is vital in the critique of works and in determining the themes and tones of a text. Figurative language enables the reader’s imagination to expand beyond the literal narrative of a story. It can be found in all aspects of stories and poems and generally uses a multitude of techniques.