One of the main features of postmodernism is, that it exposed an experiment in different artistic fields as a result of denying conformism, which is introduced from avant-garde theory onwards. Postmodernism, therefore, acts as part of what modernism stood for except that postmodernism at the same time performs as its criticism. The same happens with postmodern theatre and modern theatre. The line is blurred as these two periods are intertwining. If we take a classic theatre as a dividing line between both periods I would say that postmodern theatre is far away from classical definition of drama and its space.
Less is Bore Modernism movement had transformed with the clear ambition of improving people’s lives, however, it was in direct conflict with the spirit of 70s. For example, modernist architects aimed to find the perfect building that could serve any person, any function, and in any location. The clean lines on architecture of modernism was basically directed to be a perfectly engineered blank canvas for life. The people of the 70s, however, viewed modernist architecture as an oppressive, one-size-fits-all solution to the richly varied complexities of life. Furthermore, characteristics of modernist (rejecting historicism and ornamentation) have pushed both designers and architect to create building and design with the exact opposite characteristics
Charles Harrison argues that the arrival of Expressionism announced new standards in the creation and judgment of art and that Art was now meant to come forth from within the artist, rather than from a depiction of the external visual world, and the standard for assessing the quality of a work of art became the character of the artist's feelings rather than an analysis of the composition (Harrison 2007:127). Expressionist artists often employed swirling, swaying, and exaggeratedly executed brushstrokes in the depiction of their subjects. These techniques were meant to convey the turgid emotional state of the artist reacting to the anxieties of the modern world (Harrison 2007:127). Expressionism emerged simultaneously in various cities across Germany as a response to a widespread anxiety about humanity's increasingly discordant relationship with the world and accompanying lost feelings of authenticity and spirituality (The Art Story: online). The late modern period was marked by extraordinary creativity in thought and the arts.
Renaissance artist used this concept to create famous pieces of art. Linear perspective also impacted architecture drawings. It helped provide a new way of showing and thinking about space. In the year 1421, Filippo Brunelleschi was commissioned by the Medici family to design a building for them.
In philosophy it is used to focus on the individual’s conscious, perceptual and intellectual processes, excluding preconceptions and the idea of external consequences (Gregory, 1987). Phenomenology is a philosophical method aimed at getting at the truth - it aims to achieve clarity of insight and thought while including the subject. It makes a distinction between appearance and essence. It is a very appropriate philosophical method to apply to the theory and practice of art therapy. (Carpendale, 2003)
These principles were the importance of the mathematical proportions rather than the ornamental decoration. Functionality is an important factor without disregarding harmonic proportions and elegance based on simplicity. However, Jones style pursued the aesthetic of the facade without applying the mathematical proportions for the layout of the rooms. It is important to underline his innovative ceiling designs (always following Palladian models) and plasterworks. Jones's first ceilings were examples of what became a new style realized in three dimensions (see Banqueting House ceiling Picture).
These sensory signals have a large impact on our relationship and experience of an environment because they are able to physically and emotionally engage and connect us to the architecture. Although these types of sensorial qualities may not make or break the successfulness of architecture, they must remain of high importance because of their ability to reinforce an individual’s personal connection to a place. Juhani Pallasmaa, claims that our design culture has forgotten the importance of the senses in engaging our whole being- physical and emotional- in an architectural experience. This theory speaks to an experience that goes beyond a visual relationship between a person and architecture.
ORGANIC ARCHITECTURE: EXAMINING WRIGHT’S PRINCIPLE OF DESIGN THROUGH FALLINGWATER AND THE GUGGENHEIM MUSEUM I. INTRODUCTION The architecture of the United States at the turn of the century – 1895 to 1905 – was at best, a collection of eclectic styles, with hardly one relating in anyway or sense to the ideal of the nation in which it was built. This was an era which regarded architecture as an application of fashion and styles, unrelated to structure or construction techniques. Yet it was also a time when the entire construction industry was undergoing revolutionary changes. New materials were emerging, and new methods of handling the older materials were being developed at the same time.
representations of the exterior world as a physical, historical, site of experience. Also, time is considered as well and became psychological not the historical time of realism. The conventions, strategies and techniques adopted by the modernist novelists were closely connected with the great transformations that Europe underwent at a philosophical, political, technological and artistic level, and they owed specifically a lot to the new ideas on the human mind that were spreading across Europe and America. William James and Sigmund Freud were among the chief creators of this modern psychology, and their writings, along with Woolf’s, show us their attempts to give a novel account of the workings of the mind.