Stuttering is a multidimensional involuntary disruption in the production of speech sounds, that is also accompanied by underlying emotional factors. Stuttering is highly variable and is unique to certain individuals and situations. Stuttering can best be defined as a neurodevelopmental, epigenetic, multifactor disorder. Although it is more important to understand how to treat stuttering, knowing the cause of stuttering may provide a sense of comfort and acceptance for the person who stutters and their family. There are several plausible theories of stuttering, but there is no evidence pinpointing the exact etiology of it.
In an article by Alzheimer’s Association it mentions that many experts who study this type like to call it “Vascular Cognitive Impairment” because it better explains the idea that your vascular thinking skills can change and it can either be small or serve. Also, in this article it mentions that Vascular Dementia is account for 10 percent of cases and that is remains underdiagnosed even though it is considered common. B. Symptoms i. With this type of Dementia, the symptoms can be very different due to how badly the blood vessel are damaged after having the stroke.
However, it differs from the idea of recovered memories in that dissociative amnesia is a diagnosable psychological disorder that causes patients to forget entire periods of time rather than specific events. Some contrast the two phenomena by describing repression as a “horizontal split in the memory system,” while dissociative amnesia is a “vertical split” (Leong, Waits, & Diebold, 2006). But is there any definitive evidence from cognitive neuroscience research that specifically suggest the existence of a horizontal split in memory? The proponents of recovered memory claim that patients repress memories of particularly traumatic experiences as a sort of coping mechanism, including those who have experienced childhood traumas or sexual abuse. The memory will remain inaccessible to the individual until it is triggered by some phenomenon, typically by a psychotherapist, and the patient’s memory will be
Acoustic analysis of voice in spastic dysarthria: Case report ABSTRACT Voice analysis in dysarthria is challenging because of the complexity of the disorder and its affects on the speech production system. A combination of perceptual and acoustic analysis is increasingly common because of its convenience. The aim of this report is to perform the voice analysis in 66 years old male diagnosed as spastic dysarthria. Based on the assessment we can conclude that voice analysis reveals interesting data on the multiplicity of voice quality in spastic dysarthric. Key words: dysarthria, acoustic analysis, voice quality INTRODUCTION Vocal analysis in individuals with neurological disease can make an important contribution towards reaching a differential
Given this, and knowing that people with autism suffer from being unable to understand people’s gestures, taking things in a literal way and having a lack of empathy, it is reasonable to hypothesize that there could be something wrong with this ‘mirror neuron’ reaction. Researchers have described people with autism as having a ‘broken mirror’, hence the ‘broken mirror hypothesis’. Some research has taken place into supporting this theory. Obviously it would be unethical to place an electrode into a human brain, so researchers have used other methods to record brain activity. One example is a research group at U.C.S.D who used an electroencephalogram (EEG) which measures brain waves.
Shaken baby syndrome, or inflicted traumatic brain injury, is the direct result of violent shaking of a child with or without there being contact between the child’s head and a hard surface (Barr, Barr, Fujiwara, Conway, Catherine & Brant, 2009). Shaken baby syndrome is considered highly dangerous as it is not easily detected with its annual estimated rate of inflicted traumatic brain injury being 30 cases per 100 000 children aged 1 year or younger (Barr et al., 2009). This essay will be speaking more about shaken baby syndrome, the effects it has on infants and how it can be prevented. This essay will further discuss the effectiveness of intervention strategies that have been used for shaken baby syndrome, specifically speaking about these interventions, what they entail and then impact these interventions have made on the prevention of shaken baby syndrome. According to Jayakumar, Ranjit and Gandhi (2004), shaken baby syndrome is a serious form of child abuse of which is often under-diagnosed due to there being very few or no obvious external indications of injury.
The Predominant Theory is a theory that tells dyslexia is caused by a fundamental deficiency in the processing of phonological information. The Double Deficit Theory is a theory that tells dyslexics have a weak phonological awareness(of sound in words) and also tells that dyslexic suffers inherent problems in processing information at a given speed, which cause interference in many cognitive activities that includes reading and writing. Magnocellular Impairment Theory is a theory that tells dyslexics ' visual, learning, and processing issues are caused by a deficit in the magnocellular pathway. Cerebellar Impairment Theory is a theory that believes that the mild dysfunction of the cerebellum leads to an inability to effect the timed eye movements
What negative effects has background music? There were researches that proved negative effect of music on human brain activity. When people memorize verbal information, phonological loop (part of verbal system) is used to maintain and rehears the data. At the same time it is used for processing of sound information. That is why competition
Upon examining a patient with presbycusis, the most typical results display “bilateral, symmetrical sensorineural hearing loss affecting the higher frequencies, particularly 2,000-8,000 Hz.” (DeBonis, D., & Donohue, C., 2008) Patients with presbycusis often feel that speakers are mumbling in conversation. This is a frequent complaint of presbycusis patients due to higher frequency speech sounds (such as certain consonant sounds) being
Hearing Loss and Symptoms According to Claridge, an expert in hearing aid development, hearing is a complex sense involving both the ear's ability to detect sounds and the brain's ability to interpret those sounds.13 Therefore, understanding hearing loss can be difficult. However, The National Institute of Health believes that it can be placed into two categories, sensorineural and conductive. A sensorineural hearing loss is when damage affects the nerves or hair-cells of the inner ear. The nerve and hair-cell damage not only reduces the sounds that can be heard, but the ability to understand these sounds.14 This is supported by Smith an Otolaryngologist who states that, "The first indication of a mild loss (of hearing) is difficulty in understanding speech." 15 As the inner ear contains a variety of hair cells, which are specific to set frequencies, a person suffering from sensorineural hearing loss may hear certain frequencies perfectly and others not at all.16 The American Ear Science Institute confirms that this type of hearing loss is
EEG has previously been used to measure frontal lobe dysfunction, and EEG studies have linked brain wave abnormalities in the frontal lobe to depression (Thibodeau, Jorgenson, & Kim, 2006). These findings indicate that the depression experienced post-concussion could be linked to the frontal lobe. More importantly, EEG could potentially measure the frontal lobe dysfunction caused by concussions. One study proposed EEG could be used to identify players at risk for future concussions by examining differences in healthy athletes and previously concussed athletes’ brain activity. This study had a small sample of 42 athletes and did not report the time since concussion in their findings.
Still other clinicians considered a very minor impact to the head, often called a “ding,” to be a concussion. The confusion over the definition created problems for multicenter research programs. To be comfortable with the consistency of data coming from different locations, researchers ' projects began to identify mild traumatic brain injury
The topic of cochlear implants is causing quite the argument between the deaf and medical community. The core of the disagreement centers around whether or not cochlear implantation should continue to be considered as an option for hearing impaired individuals to improve auditory ability.. According to the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association a cochlear implant is “a device that provides direct electrical stimulation to the auditory (hearing) nerve in the inner ear.” Proponents of cochlear implants claim that hose who are born with or later experience a problem with the sensory nerve of the inner ear have the opportunity to gain the ability to hearHowever, many are now arguing that this device is not as useful or healthy for the human ear as it has been said to be. Those who oppose cochlear implantation, namely the deaf community, view it as a threat to the deaf community and its culture. At both sides of the argument, cochlear implants are a sensitive topic amongst the deaf community and those trying to further advancements on the cochlear implant device.
This Neural tube defect is not as common, but it is one of the most severe cases. Each year, about 1,000 babies are affected. Anencephaly can occur when the top portion of the spinal cord doesn’t close all the way. That baby that is born with this will have little to no brain matter. The baby may be missing some of its skull, and will have birth defects of the head and face.
One major symptom is heightened senses. This can make people feel uncomfortable (10). Children with autism may not show feeling through facial expressions, like smiling (10). Different people have different severities of autism. Some might be very mild forms of autism while others can be very severe (6).