Our culture and individual differences play a similar role in a person’s perception. An attribution is the casual observation we make for an observed behavior. There are internal and external attributions. External attributions are when we explain a behavior by referring to the situation. Internal attributions are explaining someone’s behavior using the internal characteristic of the individual.
This model was experimentally tested on a variety of national and international samples and was found to reliably predict stereotype content. Ethnocentrism is judging and comparing another culture solely by the values and standards of one 's own culture. Ethnocentric individuals judge and compare other groups or cultures with respect to their own ethnic group or culture, especially with concern for language, behavior, customs, and religion. These ethnic distinctions and subdivisions serve to define each ethnicity 's unique cultural identity. Ethnocentrism
Social categorization theory developed by Turner (1978) describes the categorization of people based on salient attributes like gender, ethnicity or age, resulting in stereotyping on the basis of these differences. Social categorization theory posits that similarities and dissimilarities of demographics can lead formation of different group with resulting effects on member of in-group favorably themselves to the detriment of members of out-groups social (Turner, Brown & Tajfel, 1979). Self-categorization theory explains when individuals categorize themselves by assigning to themselves the manners, actions and other characteristics they link with association within a specific group (Schmitt, Branscombe, Silvia, Garcia, & Spears. 2016). By means of self-categorization and membership of a group, people cultivate a social identity that functions as a social-cognitive scheme (customs, standards and attitudes) for their group associated action.
The reasons behind conformity fall into two categories: normative and informational. Normative conformity appears from fear of rejection, most often involving compliance. Informational conformity, on the other hand, occurs when a person adjusts his or her behavior in order to understand
Previous studies have shown its implication to the phenomenon of self-serving bias. Showing that cultural differences, degree of relationship, protection of individual’s self-esteem, role of individual, academic achievement, and expectancy are factors that is affected and can affect an individual’s behavior. However, in addressing the question on the explanations of why people display self-serving bias. Some researchers suggest that self-serving bias is driven by their motivation process or they are driven by the manner on how they make judgments (Anderson & Slusher, 1986; Tetlock & Levy, 1982). In motivation-driven explanations of self-serving bias, two factors can be seen as distinct motives: self-enhancement (self-worth) and self-presentation.
Micael Sega Written Response #2 CONCEPT QUESTIONS 1) The three components of attitudes are cognition, affect, and intention. Cognition is our perceive knowledge of something, affect is our emotions toward something, and intention is our behavior toward something. Our cognition and affect effect each other and develops how we behave. 2) Cognitive dissonance is the disconnect an individual has between their behavior and attitude or two separate attitudes. It influences attitudes by splitting an individual attitude into two contradicting ones.
It is believed that stereotypic views might affect individuals’ self-cognitive development, as well as their feelings, actions, and attitudes. According to Allen (2000), stereotype is associated with the development of beliefs concerning the traits supposedly possessed by most members of a society. It is an exaggerated belief that members of a group have certain traits that are peculiar to them. This implies that the impact of stereotype tends to change the individual’s perception of reality over a period of time. Stereotypes are widely held beliefs about the character and behavior of all members of a group.
In The Fear of Knowledge, Boghossian deduces how knowledge is defined, created, and perceived by different collective groups due to the context of time, place, and cultural perspectives. Although Boghossian is a strong supporter for attaining and conveying knowledge that is objective and universally understood by everyone, the structures of language and social situations cause the interpretation of knowledge to be much more complex. In response, Boghossian explores various theories of knowledge such as the classical picture, social dependence conception, fact constructivism, and epistemic relativism to further understand the unique human processes and reasoning of knowledge. The Classical Picture of Knowledge The classical picture of knowledge