Accordingly, in cooperative classrooms, the students are expected to help each other, to discuss and argue with sharing their ideas.it helps to assess each other’s current knowledge and fill in gaps in each other understands. According to Johnson and Johnson (1989) and Colburn (1991) described cooperative learning as one which promotes positive interdependence, face to face promotive interaction, individual accountability, social skills, group processing, shared leadership and responsibility for each
This is important because students are able to understand the why behind the content and the process, and this enables them to own and self-monitor their learning. One disadvantage, though, is that the model seems to address only content without a holistic approach to teaching gifted students. Unlike the Parallel and Integrated models, the William and Mary model focuses solely on developing inquiry and research skills, while ignoring other things that, I believe, are essential to any curriculum for gifted students. The Parallel Curriculum model boasts many advantages; I love the holistic approach to planning that begins with content and follows each aspect of teaching, even lesson/unit closure! The four parallels (Connections, Core, Practice, and Identity) combine to provide an educational experience that accounts for so many of the needs of our gifted students.
In learner-centred learning, students "construct knowledge through gathering and synthesizing information and integrating it with the general skills of inquiry, communication, critical thinking, problem solving and so on" (Perumal, 2015). How do learners learn in learner-centred teaching? The term 'learner-centred' depicts that learners are the active agents who determine how learning occurs. They "influence the content, activities, materials, and pace of learning" (Froyd & Simpson, 2000) and thus take responsibility of their own learning. The teacher, who takes the role of facilitator and coach, plays the key role of creating the necessary environment for the students so that they can learn independently.
A recurring line that Cooper emphasizes throughout his work is that schools and teachers must maximize learning for all students. What is the purpose of differentiation if it is not to benefit the students potential for greatness? Cooper uses language for mixed readers, his content is either review for those who have heard this information before, but need a new perspective and those who are learning this material for the first time. He dissects differentiation into digestible parts, and key components. Mainly discussing and evaluating the three basis of differentiation: readiness, interest, and learning
There is a collective responsibility for all students in the group to contribute to reach common goal and collective efficacy is the belief of such responsibility (Cheng et al., 2008). Every students would strive to do their part in order to receive the outcomes and avoid holding back the whole group. To facilitate learning, students can develop social skills when participating in group activities (Cheng et al., 2008). Students would interact, make decisions together, and manage conflicts in group tasks. Despite different levels of ability, students can construct ideas together and strategies in problem solving can be internalised (Wilkinson et al., 2000).
Schnieder’s invention of the co-op education enables both groups of students to find meaning in what they are studying. Schnieder gave motivation to students who are undecided in what they want to study. While they co-op they gain confidence and allows them to achieve greater energy and assurance on their studies. When cooperative education started out not many schools made it a requirement. Depending on the field of study, more schools began to mandate it and make it a requirement.
• The design of the learning experience includes the possibility to learn from natural consequences, mistakes and successes. The Experiential Learning Process: A number of steps are involved in experiential learning that offer student a hands-on, collaborative and reflective learning experience which helps them to “fully learn new skills and knowledge” (Haynes, 2007). Although learning content is important, but experiential learning emphasis on the learning taken place through the process which is at the heart of experiential learning. During each step of the experience, students will engage with the content, the instructor, each other as well as self–reflect and apply what they have learned in another situation. The following describes the steps that comprise experiential learning as noted by (Haynes, 2007, para.
Teachers and fellow students will also provide help for students with disabilities; in this way, students with learning disabilities will be motivated to study as they feel that they are a part of a group instead of being isolated in special places. Thus, they will achieve higher grades. Moreover, they will be greatly engaged in the society as they are building bridges with their peers from several backgrounds. On the long run, teachers, parents, and the society as a whole would develop. Students with learning disabilities should be included in the “normal” classroom because it improves their academic performance, social behavior, and communication language.
The middle school model uses various modes of instruction that benefit various of learners. The middle school model uses student centered approaches to learning. Inquiry learning and interactive learning are also emphasized in the middle school model. Differentiation is used to meet the needs of all unique learners. Cooperative learning, discussions, student inquires, and projects are used to meet the needs of auditory, visual, kinesthetic learners.
Likewise, their exam results showed the positive effect of group work in mathematics. Students in the experimental group performed better in the integration section of the exams than the control group. Based on the results of the experiment and questionnaire, Sofroniou and Poutos (2016:7) concluded that it can be said that group work learning, especially group discussion,“helped to deepen students’ understanding and to develop critical and analytical thinking skills”. Furthermore, Sofroniou and Poutos (2016:12) emphasised the importance of group work in learning skills that learners can gain through discussion during group work because currently many of employers are looking for people who “are able to work collaboratively” and “solve