This sparked a height in incarceration rates, especially those of black men. Through the system, Alexander believes we have pushed people into second class status, and therefore our criminal justice system remains unfair. The fifth theme is due to the lying, manipulation, subterfuge, and obfuscation of the American people. Alexander (2012), believes that from day one we have been lied to by our government. The war on drugs pushed people into fear, and therefore manipulated law enforcement to go after people of color.
should be a misdemeanor and punishable through a $1,000 fine, as well as up to a year in prison. Those who unlawfully return to the U.S. after deportation will face the same amount in fine. However, they would potentially serve up to two years in prison, as it is a felony offense. The result of this was terrifying, as by 1939, there were 44,000 cases in regards to prosecutions for this type of offense (Hernandez 138). By this time, many Mexican immigrants ended up being arrested and imprisoned based on Senator Blease’s proposal.
In return, they created laws called the Black Codes to oppress African Americans. These acts made sure the former slaves signed labor contracts, and they would be fined or forced into unpaid labor if they didn’t. This method of making sure blacks are still laborers was horrible and the former slave-owners loved it.
Some Attica prisoners began to identify themselves as political prisoners rather than convicted criminals. These events were the perfect concoction to create a four-day mass riot. The Monroe Fordham Regional History Center’s “Attica NOW!” collection contains interviews of Attica inmates who recount daily mistreatment from guards and rules that were abused by guards to punish inmates. These interviews also talk about the lack of educational opportunities and the fact that they were forced to perform slave labor (Slade). During the 1960’s and 1970’s President Nixon declared a war on drugs causing the demographic of criminals to shift as Attica was now a dumping ground for African Americans and Hispanics facing drug charges, causing Attica to become overcrowded, and increased the already poisonous racial atmosphere in the prison.
Annotated Bibliography Alexander, M. (2010). The new Jim Crow: Mass incarceration in the age of colorblindness. New York: The New Press. Alexander opens up on the history of the criminal justice system, disciplinary crime policy and race in the U.S. detailing the ways in which crime policy and mass incarceration have worked together to continue the reduction and defeat of black Americans. Her central thesis is that mass incarceration is “The New Jim Crow,” or the new system of control used by the government to uphold racial class in the U.S.
This impacted the slave communities culture by changing their cultural constructs. "Africans and Indians fought with each other, claimed to be each other, and allied together for common goals" (Document 9) This document proves that trans-Atlantic slave trade inflicted a new culture upon African slaves, also know as the maroon community. The maroon community was made up of ex-slaves or runaways. By being apart of this community, it gave them a new outlook on them being away from their previous home. Although it was not an ideal situation to be in, it was much better than being a plantation slave.
And when the potential assailants of a crime were Black, US psychiatric and popular culture frequently blamed “Black Culture” or Black activist politics–not individual, disordered brains–for the threats such men imagined to pose” (2015, 244). It is great how the authors help shape the idea that it is obvious that the United States cultural tries to justify every crime and targets a certain group and labels them in order to control how the population thinks or sees a certain individual because they are not the “normal” American citizen. They help support this idea by providing evidence that shows it has been like this for years before now, it states in the article, “A number of historical documents suggest that racialized and gendered overtones also shaped 1960s-era associations between schizophrenia and gun violence in the United States” (Metzl & MacLeish 2015, 244). All of the supporting evidence helps explain why the society tends to assume that there is a certain type of person to look out for when it comes to crimes or gun-related
Vigilante Groups, who took the law into their own hands, however, were harder to clamp down on because they were unorganized. The White League and White Brotherhood carried on the mission of the KKK and united members of all classes of Southern society to fight against a supposed Republican system of “reverse racism” that favored blacks over whites. These groups eventually became a militant wing of the Democratic Party and intended to redeem the south by forbidding the black majority from
Ronald Reagan declared war on drugs in 1982, he strategically released media propaganda that gained the public support to fight this new war on drugs. He used a lot of battle words and war cries in his speeches, which led to some over aggressively policies towards a certain group of people, by this I mean if you declare a war, you must have an enemy and America always says black communities are responsible for America crimes. The enemy in this case is every black community in the United States, which also raise a question as why haven’t black communities paid attention to this ongoing war in their own backyard? Raegan campaign came up with two strategy plans in defeating this war, the first was demand reduction, which supports drug treatment programs to decrease the number of illegal drugs consumed on the streets and boost public education to decrease the poverty in America. The second plan was supply reduction, which Reagan and his team preferred because this strategy goes right along with their agenda and fits the “war” theme.
article he focuses on the impact of mass incarceration on African American families and the challenges that they faced. He also includes the 1965 report “The Negro Family”. He also talked about different stories and victims, he gives data tables and graphs, and also digs up information from history. Coates article is 84 pages long so I am sure he had a lot to get off of his chest. Coates stated, “Family breakdown” “flows from centuries of oppression and persecution of the negro man.
At the turn of the 21st century the majority that entered the prison system were African Americans and Latinos. (Michelle Alexander, 2010) The reason behind mass incarceration was due to the crack down on the deteriorating communities where the majority of minorities lived. Authors Scott Ehlers, Vincent Schiraldi and Jason Ziedenberg of Still Striking Out: Ten Years of California’s Three Strikes (2004) report that African Americans in prison because of the three strike law is higher per every 100,000 African American than Whites and Latinos in California. (U.S. Census Bureau
There were many prison camps used during the Civil War and they were all terrible. The prison camps during the Civil War helped claim the lives of thousands of the deaths from the Civil War, and most people don’t know how much of an impact the prison camps had on the total number of deaths throughout the Civil War. They killed thousands of soldiers on both sides, making an impact on each side’s soldier count, and adding another fear to the soldier’s head. The prison camps used during the Civil War killed as many as 56,000
African Americans comprise 31% of individuals arrested for drug violations. In eleven states, at least 1 in 20 black adults are in prison. Research shows that prosecutors are twice as likely to pursue a mandatory minimum sentence for black people as for white people charged with the same crime. One in nine black children and one in 38 Latino children have an incarcerated parent, compared to one in 57 white children. Higher rates of incarceration in minority communities have lead to the destruction of the family
The documentary the “13th” had shocking statistics on how many people are incarcerated in the United States. The 1970’s was the beginning of the “mass incarceration era,” which started with 357,292 people incarcerated. From there, the prison population has continuously increased and reached a population of 2,306,200 in 2014. Many of these people incarcerated are African-Americans because the criminal justice system has always worked against them. African-Americans in the United States account for 6.5% of the population, meanwhile they account for 42% of the prison population.
After the Civil War ended, there were financial issues in the country, all of which were blamed on the blacks that had recently been freed from slavery. It was speculated that people who were angry with blacks saw lynching as a way to relieve tension between the two groups of people. Because of the blatant aversion many people had towards black people, they were subject to many hate crimes. With the levels of violence as high as they where, protection was necessary, and Anti-Lynching laws would have been