Ideas of white supremacy based on the theories of Robert Knox and Charles Darwin, formed the basis upon which Europeans considered themselves superior to the natives of America, Africa and Australia. After the Europeans colonialized Americas, Australia and Africa, they started persecuting natives under the guise of civilizing them. They started exploiting natural resources, mineral wealth and abundant labor often forced in order to meet demand of the industrialized west. The history of colonialism in America, Australia, Sub-continent and Africa is riddled with violent conflict, mass scale persecution, outright genocide and racial discrimination. Slavery in America, genocide against Native American tribes, racial segregation and colonialism
Though biblical accounts for inferiority ran rampant, the objective of the proponents of natural history looks at physical characteristics, and the basis of white supremacy is in classification. These observable characteristics of racial classes pertained to character and disposition (West pg.56) According to Dr. West there are three stages in the emergence of white supremacy. First was the “normative gaze” the concept that basically the Greek concept of beauty is the norm (West pg. 55). This is the emergence of categorizing race denoting skin color to classify human bodies.
Dunbar-Ortiz began her book by introducing the audience to the fact that the colonization of the Indigenous People of present-day United States and the captivation of their land by Anglo settlers was motivated by both their “belief in white supremacy” (36) and the theory of Social Darwinism, a theory which became popular in the mid-nineteenth century (39). For one, according to Dunbar-Ortiz, “skin color has been and continues to be a key component of racism in the United States” (36); racism is what fueled white supremacy to formulate, allowing for Anglo settlers to consider themselves more supreme that the Native people of North America. In addition to the perception of white supremacy, Anglo settlers were also influenced by the concept of Social Darwinism, in which English scientists theorized that people of color “has descended from apes, while the English were descendents of ‘man’ who had been created by God ‘in his own image’” (39). Both the concept of white supremacy and the Social Darwinism theory allowed for Anglo settlers to continue with the mistreatment of the Indigenous, for their actions seemed to be justified by both a racial point of view and a religious point of view. However, the colonization of the
Racism is part of human nature and it has existed throughout human history from antiquity. The first racism cases started between black and white people. Nowadays racism has been spread all over the world despite the globalization that our contemporary civilization has undergone. But, because of the increase of emigrational waves and the intense nationalism, racism has become a big problem not only for immigrant groups but for all the world’s humans. The onus is on us to eliminate the problem of racism before it becomes even worse.
As stated earlier the white monitory felt under threat and fear the extinction of the race as a whole and eugenics was perceive to be their last hope (Reference). Just as Britain had used eugenics in the classification of social status based on race; eugenics enabled the so-called “hereditary defects” to be segregated from society to protect the purity of the white race (Reference). Eugenics lay behind the construction of segregationist ideology in South Africa (Reference) as Professor Susanne Klausen. Each person belonged to the race where the texture of hair and skin color matched (Reference). Furthermore the Hassle on the distinctiveness of different cultures meant the burden of explaining human differences; eugenics was seen as the most efficient way of doing so.
Chapter three "Racism and Nativism in Immigration Policy" plainly outlined the evolution in immigration and deportation policy from the 1800 's to the 21st century. There were two specific policies that stood out to me, deep rooted in nativism and racism "Operation Wetback" and "Oriental Exclusion Act." First the Oriental Exclusion Act, which "expanded the Chinese Exclusion Act and prohibited most immigration from Asia." During the Great Depression, many Americans including the politicians were not open to immigrants coming to America. There was economic fear and anxiety and a limited number of resources to be dispersed.
For many years racism and colonialism have been the reality of the world. Both were used to advance the idea that one race was superior to another, the blacks being inferior to the whites. The Atlantic Slave trade headed the notion of colonialism, the whites believed it was their duty to civilize the blacks as they were seen as ‘untamed beasts’ that needed to be colonized. This resulted in a number of whites exploiting the blacks to gain wealth whilst, the blacks lost everything (families, identities and even their lives). The whites were skilled at manipulating to the point that some blacks believed their views as they often found ways to justify their actions.
Murphy (1986) reminds us that in the U.K., the popularity of medical genetics and the abuse of Darwinism created increasingly racial and racist accounts of why certain groups of people were more degraded or tainted than others. Very little was known or researched on what was happening to large groups of individuals who were needing or seeking help in the context of alienation and disadvantage. Power in the two approaches Foucault points out that juridical systems of power produce the subjects they subsequently come to represent” Power in transcultural psychotherapy inevitably “reproduces” what it claims merely to “ represent”, which is decentralization and seclusion. Fukuyama (1991) commented that “many people belonging to cultural groups who do not fit within the dominant culture power structure experience various forms
Like many other problems, Racism has existed throughout the history of mankind. The definition of Racism is being discriminant and disrespectful towards a racial group with the belief that your own race is superior. Racism has changed the world and how people view each other. This belief that ones race is superior has lead to create violence, stereotypes, health problems and hatred in the world. White Americans’ support for segregation sprang from a widespread belief in black inferiority and that blacks’ disadvantaged status tended to reinforce this sentiment (Harris and Leiberman).
Coupled with these distorted examples, Buchanan uses strong and impassioned examples explaining how diversity has formerly failed Americans. At one point, Buchanan listed atrocities committed by Americans through the years attempting to channel an emotional response from the reader. Buchanan lists “The war between the States was about race. Reconstruction was about race. Segregation was about race” (600).
Patriotism and nationalism arose to counter other beliefs and immigrant biases. Disbelief in patriotism often resulted in cruel punishments and sometimes even death (Doc 2). Immigrants who migrated to America were expected to disown their native culture and adopt the American lifestyle, those who didn’t couldn’t be considered true Americans (Doc 10). When foreigners first arrived they saw patriotic ideas and symbols to make sure they too would adapt to be a Patriot (Doc 11). Patriotism was a common reaction to the Red Scare.
The 20th century human carnage occurred based on a prescribed script of political ideologies replacing the Bible and trying to create an artificial utopia. From Stain and Hitler to Obama and the European Union Commissioner 's, the names, faces and eras alter, but the utopic beliefs remain static. Moreover, the underlying similarities behind all these attempts to socially engineer societies meant the removal of Christ as a higher authority. Not without coincidence, the same people that staffed the concentration camps and Gulags of yesteryear and many of the social justice warriors of today (Femen and the secular humanists) replicate and share the same characteristics of atheism. Additionally, the identity politics of today mirrors that of the
41). Racists defended the natural existence of separate races, and claimed that social and psychological characteristics were natural phenomenons as well (Guillaumin, 1999, p. 41). During the 1930 's many scientists started an enduring campaign supporting the idea that physical traits and social customs had no relation to race whatsoever (Guillaumin, 1999, p. 42). The APA (American Psychological Association) claimed that involvement of governmental and legal actions with race during the Nazi regime were based on fallacies and that there was no evidence for biological predisposition in any of them (Guillaumin, 1999, p.
In modern times, people began to be divided into factions by their gender, sexual preference, and race, among others. With these divisions, there was an surge of discrimination in the forms of sexism, homophobia, and racism. Although all three forms of discrimination is a part of the negative underbelly of the modern world, racism has a long history in America. Racism is defined as, “a belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial differences produce an inherent superiority of a particular race” (Racism). Three hundred ninety-seven years ago, the first African slaves were brought to America and centuries later, racism continues to be a system that allows for the “…debasing, degrading, and doing violence to people on the basis of color” (Wallis).