Effective use of English as a second language (ESL) or foreign language (EFL) in oral communication is, without a doubt, one of the most common, but also highly complex activities people need to learn for their interpersonal communication. For most people, learning how to speak in a second language (L2) is seen to be much more important than reading and writing (Ya-ni, 2007). Furthermore, most of employers identify communication as one of the basic competencies every graduate should possess, asserting that the ability to communicate is valuable for obtaining employment and
Language in the communication process not only performs the function of encoding the transmitted information, but also plays a special role in the process of obtaining new knowledge about the world, processing, storage and transmission of this knowledge. This makes language a vital tool not only knowledge of another culture, but also its interpretation and adaptation. The dialectical relationship between language and culture has always been a concern of teachers and educators. Regardless of the language, the culture of the country of studied language should be included in training. Over time, the pendulum of opinions of practitioners swayed "against" or "for" teaching culturein context of language learning.
Nowadays English has been spoken by about 1.5 billion people all over the world (Crystal 1997:5) as a medium of communication between people of different languages, so called English as a Lingua Franca (ELF). It is believed that English is important due to its functions to facilitate communication, which lead to the acceptance that English should be taught around the world. The trends of studying English can be seen in all industrial and developing countries, especially in Asia, as English is a required subject of education in high schools and university admission examinations. It is well concurred that studying and achieving English is prerequisite for non-native English learners as English becoming international language, and it might give learners various advantageous opportunities, for example, they might be able to study abroad, communicate with native speaker friends, or get good job opportunities. Clearly, the motivations for studying English may be distinct depending on each context of learning as well as learners.
English is a dominant language and still going to be more and more, powerful. I think it is good because you can then just use one language all over the world, and you do not need to learn for example francs, German or Spanish. In addition, English is very important today in many people 's lives and the communication between nations. English is a language, which can be spoken, understood and written all over the world. As a results todays schools, colleges, and universities use English in most subjects.
Introduction As the world grows closer, the need for proficient English communication has resulted in an enormous demand for English teaching worldwide. Consequently, Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) emerged circa the 1970s and has then gradually become one of the most popular language teaching approaches that are widely used in a range of different institutions. In some countries, English was made the obligatory second language that any students have to learn besides other core subjects. Employers and employees alike are also required to master the language to some extent of proficiency, which nowadays has been regarded the requisite for career or business advancement in many fields. Since its introduction, CLT has been playing an essential
It is a living and vibrant language spoken by over 300 million people as their native language. Millions all over the world speak English as an additional language. English is used as Lingua Franca all over in the world. There can be no denying the fact that English is learned everywhere ,where Pakhtoon students are not beyond of them, because people have found that knowledge of English is a key for better career, better say, advance knowledge and for communication with the people of entire world. Statement of the problem:- To examine the attitude of Pakhtoon students to English language at secondary level.
Sociolinguistics is fundamentally concerned with the relationship between language and society (Hao & Chi, 2013; Wardhaugh & Fuller, 2014). It studies and explains why people speak differently in different social surroundings; it is interested in explaining the function of language and the way it is used in conveying meaning. Scrutinizing the way people use language in different surroundings provides a sum of information about how language functions (Hao & Chi, 2013). Although sociolinguistics might not be a topic of interest to many, the examining of language allows the understanding of social relations within a community, and the way people convey and build up features of their social identities through language. Speech conveys implicit clues about who we really are, our identities, such as, where we come from, or what have we experienced or gone through (Hao & Chi, 2013).
On language ideology A crucial term is ‘language ideology’. There are several definitions of it. “Language ideology can be seen as establishing a connection between social structures and forms of talk. The ideologies of language are significant for social as well as linguistic analysis, because they are not only about language, as one might think first. Related to personal identity, aesthetics, morality an epistemology” (Woolard & Schieffelin 1994: 55).
Hence, the aspirants of progress in life in this technological era have to gear up with expected English language skills that cater to the various needs of their employment and advancement. The importance of English, with the global status it achieved, is witnessed in almost every field due to the recent information explosion. The language has not left any field untouched, bringing about tremendous changes in the social, cultural and educational contexts of the globe with sudden rush in the lives of people
As I have already mentioned historical past of England left the traces in the historical background of India. That is why we can say that India has had a longer exposure to English than any other country which uses it as a second language, its distinctive words, idioms, grammar and rhetoric spreading gradually to affect all places, habits and culture. English has special national status as an official language in the parliament, judiciary, broadcasting, journalism, and in the education system. Learning English language has become popular for business, commerce and cultural reasons and especially for internet communications throughout the world. It is widely used by many information and technology industries and recognized as being standard.