How does one know what the difference between what the soul desires and what the body desires? Socrates claims that the immortal soul is searching for an ultimate wisdom and good, while the mortal body has only desires of the physical earth. How does the soul know to search for the ultimate truth? Does an individual reach this objective through process of thought, or is it only taught to them? I would like to know because it seems that few people are philosophers, and if the ultimate goal of the soul (rhyme not intended) is to reach the ultimate truth, then why would so many individuals not have the idea or teachings to give them the chance to attempt to become a philosopher?
Socrates’ primary concern is for the soul, and for this reason, he would like to be rid of the body insofar as it interferes with the welfare of the soul. It is true that the rest of the world are of the opinion that apart from bodily pleasures life is not worth living, but in this respect they are mistaken. The philosopher knows that the soul is superior to the body and should be its master rather than its slave. As the body desires pleasures of the flesh, so the soul desires wisdom. The pleasures of the body are experienced through the senses, but the acquiring of wisdom comes only through the mind.
“What is Philosophy?” by Simon Blackburn According to Simon Blackburn, philosophy can be different things depending on how it’s used, and it can be used many different ways. When used as a method, philosophy studies the same world as science, but uses rational arguments as proof rather than scientific observations. Although, when thought of as a subject matter rather than a method, philosophy becomes a specific area of study, trying to answer questions that have not yet been answered and concern humanity using the three foundational philosophical questions: what exists, what do we know, and what should we do. These are the basic questions philosophers use to prove their arguments. The third way to use philosophy, according to Blackburn, is as an attitude, or way of thinking.
In the realm of Philosophy, different views about the definition of the mind and its interactions exist. Among the many, Dualism stands as one of the most debatable, thanks to its position about the relationship of the mind and body, and its repercussions. This assignment discusses the dualist relationship between the mind and the body, as well as its impact on the individual free will. It asserts Interventionism as an extension of Dualism, as well as an alternative to Determinism. The objective of this endeavor is to present the Dualist approach to Mind and Body as an alternative or possible solution to the dilemma of Determinism.
The Skinner box was one of Skinner’s most famous experiments and it fulfilled the goals of psychology, which are to describe, explain, predict and control behavior. In contrast, Freud’s theory of human behavior is not scientific. The theory was formulated basing on Freud’s observations of his patients overtime. It cannot be replicated making it impossible to prove the existence of such constructs as the id, ego or superego. Freud also believed that human behavior has biological bases influenced by the id.
Brain body expresses that neither the psyche nor matter can be decreased to one another in any capacity ("Dualism", n.d). The distinctive ways to deal with brain research take differentiating perspectives to whether the psyche and the body are isolated or related. Thinking which is having opportunity of decision is a mental occasion, yet can bring about conduct to happen which is development of muscle in light of an idea. Speculation can accordingly be said to get things going, "personality moves matter" (McLeod, 2007).
Descartes distinguished between the res cogitans and the res extensa. The res cognitans talked about the soul or mind and was said to be essentially “a thing which thinks.” The res extensa was the material stuff of the body. It was characterized primarily by the fact of extension: it occupied space and was therefore amenable to measurement. In some previous years neuroscientists and cognitive psychologists have argued that this ontological separation of mind and body is no longer arguable. The former tell that mental functions can be fully explained by brain science.
Divination was perhaps the main way that Greeks could access the absolute knowledge of the gods. There is a notion that Greek divination served a trivial role within Greek society. Where does this conception come from? There are a variety of observances that promote this conception. In many cases, the validity of the oracles is often used to put the role of divination into question.
However, there are some other philosophers, including Immanuel Kant, who object this argument, disputing facts about the existence of God. In light of this prelude, this paper intends to focus on discussing Kant’s objection to the Ontological Argument proposed by Anselm, and bring in light the different views of both Kant and Anselm in regards to the claim
Throughout history there has been an abundance of ancient philosophers, including Plato, who explored metaphysics and its relationship to the real world before Descartes’ began questioning the idea. Nevertheless, his views on dualism are very different from Plato’s. As we know, Plato thinks and feels as if the body is just a vessel for the soul, but Descarte on the other hand strongly believes and shows proof that both your soul and body are connected and intertwining. Stating one is not superior to the other, both work hand and hand, affecting each other. Descartes states that “I reflect therefore I am.” Descartes shows through his dualism that though the mind and body are separate , they are connected and reliant on one another.