Also, during this time, the economic industry was booming, advancement in technology, farming influence, politics, businesses, natural resources, transportation and railroads. By the end of 19th century, the middle-class Americans, were known as trusts. Trusts were known as people who controlled competition in the industry. In the late 19th century, the first major trust was John D. Rockefeller, who controlled a substantial part of the oil industry. Andrew Carnegie was another major trust, that controlled the steel industry and stated in the Gospel of Wealth (1889), that if a person consumed wealth, they’re supposed to live frugally and use the extra money to help people in need (Foner, Voices of Freedom, II, 28).
Immigrants have once migrated to our country in tiny groups and they made up a miniscule part of our population. Over time, they have strived, reproduced, and are just as stable as they should be. The African immigrants of Jamaica Avenue are relevant in this situation. They all have a particular kinship and bond that other groups may not. They have worked hard and have worked together along the journey.
Bourgeois is a French word that is defined as the “characteristic of the middle class, typically with reference to its perceived materialistic values or conventional attitudes” (Oxford dictionaries). The idea of Bourgeois individualism means that those in the middle class began to pursue what they really want to accomplish in life. This means in terms of the workplace, in the household, or even as a representative in the majority of the government. Society long ago used to run in a vertical fashion of power (the king on top all the way down to those in poverty), now it runs horizontally in the sense that everyone is equal. Due to this and according to Bourgeois individualism, those in the middle class or frankly anywhere, can express themselves in anyway the want.
How did some people during the Gilded Age manage to be wealthy and successful while others struggled to survive and provide their families with the basic needs? The Gilded Age took place during the 19th century and was time of prosperity for the wealthy and a time of severe poverty for the poor. During the Gilded age, some people, in this case the rich, really did benefit from the industrial economy that was created. While the rich benefited, the poor were making less than what they should have and were struggling to keep a decent life. The lifestyle of these two groups of people are significantly different, but also have some aspects in which they are similar.
Joseph Huthmacher argued that most of the people driving progressivism were working class citizens, especially immigrants. Many of these members pressed for reforms such as workmen 's compensation along with wage and hour laws for everyone across America. Huthmacher rejected the idea that progressivism was a movement started and controlled by the middle class. He believed that progressivism was more than just that and talked about how the lower class actually played an important role in the movement. He argued throughout his article that the movement was a direct cause of the dilemmas of an industrial society.
Instead of the rags to riches story, Morgan, born into a wealthy family, was given the financial world to conquer. “He financed railroads and helped organize U.S. Steel, General Electric and other major corporations while using his influence to help stabilize American financial markets during several economic crises.” Like most wealthy business men at the time, Morgan “had too much power and was accused of manipulating the nation’s financial system for his own gain.” Overall, Rockefeller, Carnegie, and Morgan all built businesses for struggling industries in order to save the nation and help themselves succeed. Capitalism, America 's new economic system, depended on competition and played a huge role in the overall process.
Expectations of society were the most important aspect of life for these families; personal desires were secondary to the common good of the society. In addition, there were differences in the roles of men and women; men were allowed more freedoms than women, although,
After the American Revolution, the amount of money brought to the country had declined due to the removal of the British from America, however, this left the American economy suffering due to the deep debt. The politics in America included more working class citizens in the political process in an effort to have their new government represent the people’s desires. The revolution also changed the social attitudes of Americans from slavery to women’s rights, from views on religious beliefs to voting. After the French Revolution, France increasingly became the land of peasants, growing into a more modern society. In Russia the banks were nationalized and a national assembly was assembled to run the economy; however, the economy was destabilized, which led to starvation and a lack of public order.
These were wealthy Europeans of whom owned estates used for the productions of materials; the laborers worked on a debt peonage system. This can be compared to the feudal system in Europe; where peasants or in this case natives/ slaves were tied to the land and worked in order to pay off debt. This labor system, as well as wage labor lived on, but eventually some of the lower-class citizens/ slaves/ indentured servants fought for an economic reform. They wanted to break free of their oppression and unfair system. “The American provinces are fighting for their freedom, and they will ultimately succeed.
The Industrial Revolution created a consumer economy and a huge middle class with the means of purchasing consumer goods. This new middle class felt that they had arrived at a higher social plane of existence. The social norms of the farm and tenement would not do for the family of a man who made his way in the world. Such were some of the many mannerisms of the Victorian era.
It also greatly reduced the Unitarian power of many countries, each manor implementing feudalism being like a state in a Federalist nation. Feudalism was also another aspect that kept the economy running despite the expensive and fruitless expeditions for gold and other riches in the New World. ECONOMIC - feudalism ran on a series of obligations that could be considered a trading of service in exchange for money, goods, or another service. Even though the classes were not paying each other with money but with services in feudalism, it maintained the economy’s momentum, as it kept everyone working and a steady flow of payments to one another. By keeping an overall strong economy for long periods of time, it helped fund ventures in the new world.
Other than physical intervention via helping end labor union strikes, the government also affected businesses and the economy through law. When laws were passed in an attempt to manage the large corporations that controlled entire industries, said laws were often spun in favor of the businesses instead. One example was the Sherman Antitrust Act. Intended to control and regulate trusts, trusts being deals made between two parties that allowed benefactors to gain large sums of money, the Sherman Antitrust Act was instead interpreted in law to control labor unions. The logic used was “that the labor unions were a trust of labor” (Laissez).
(189). " Before the market revolution in transportation, farming, and goods, families used to work for themselves at their farms, and exchange goods among their neighbor; all without the need for money. Nevertheless, the market revolution changed that, it contributed toward the production of goods that was now being manufactured increasing outside the home. And at the moment, they started exchanging money for goods, providing for the growth of the economy.
augmented fivefold, which was a staggering increase, even though some scholars viewed the increase as a clear parity that created a gap between the rich and the poor. These scholars acknowledge the contribution of industrial giants such as Andrew Carnegie as well as John D. Rockefeller in revolutionizing business operations and ushering in of the contemporary corporate economy. However, the revolution sometimes affected free-market in a negative way through unfair market and economic competitions in the process. During this period, a rocket number of people were allowed and empowered to perform their voting rights.
Robber Barons and Captains of Industry Some might believe that the businessmen of the Gilded age are robber barons because of how some of them treated their workers and spent their money. The businessmen of the Gilded Age were captains of industry because of the impact that they made on the country. Carnegie, Rockefeller, Morgan, and Vanderbilt all have done things that can identify them as captains of industry. These businessmen gave their time and effort to help the economy grow.