Aristotle: Geneosity, Courage, Generosity And Moralism

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Nussbaum’s response 1 Four observations can be made to anticipate how Aristotle would respond to this objection. First, Aristotle does not need to give one single answer. It seems that there is no need to have a single answer to what kind of virtue we need to deal with in a certain aspect of human life. Maybe we will “eliminate various contenders” such as the idea of original sin as a proper attitude to one’s own worth. Second, even if there was a single answer, it will have multiple ways of being manifested. The single answer does not need to be applied in the same way everywhere. The ‘what is X’ (what is generosity, courage, temperance) could have local demonstrations or different “concrete fillings.” For example, generosity in Saudi Arabia requires a greater deal than it does in the USA. People in different countries might have different ways of being friends, but the basics of friendship (for example mutual good will, reciprocity, etc.) would be universal across cultures. The third and fourth observations can be understood together. The virtue always responds to particulars of a concrete situation. It might not have been virtuous for a man to shake hands with a woman or even look at her in some cultures, while this is acceptable in some others. One should be responsive to particulars of his locality, and should adapt the virtue to where she is. Where customs change, the general rule should be adjusted with an awareness of particulars. Virtue ethics accepts some

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