Jeremy said that morality is based on “net utility”, which means creating the greatest good/happiness for the ample amount of people. Then for act utilitarianism it said that the right action will yield the highest “net utility”. How net utility works is that it’s the total happiness vs unhappiness, then you subtract the happiness from the unhappiness (H - U = NU). Here are the steps to applying Act Utilitarianism. 1.
Aristotle believes a happy person is someone who fulfills their potential to the fullest. I personally believe happiness to be a mix of both views. I agree that our actions lead to our happiness and that our emotions can define if we are happy or not. I personally also believe that happiness is also external goods like wealth and honor. It contributes to our happiness.
According to Aristotle, the basic philosophy behind virtue ethics is that all human good is aimed towards happiness. Aristotle argued that the goal of all of human existence is to be happy and in order to achieve that goal; one must work towards consistently improving their character. He further explains the principal of virtues and vices. Virtues are positive attributes that humans have and can develop over time to acquire happiness. There are two different types of virtues; intellectual virtues and moral virtues.
This concept can be related to the term eudaimonia, which translates to the flourishing of a human being; a happy and well-lived life. Aristotle argued that the good life would focus to a great extent on contemplation and learning, or acquiring the intellectual virtues. According to Aristotelian theories, to achieve eudaimonia, one must possess arête and telos. Arête can be directly translated as
Happiness is about what benefits a person, is good for him and make him better, serves his interests and desirable for his sake. This concept is better known as hedonism which holds subjective raw feeling. Desire theory on the other hand holds that happiness is a matter of getting what people want or the fulfilment of their desires. Objective List Theory lodges that happiness outside of feeling and onto a list of truly valuable things in real world. These three are theories of happiness.
Something of beneficial value should be cared for, while something that’s non-beneficial should not. Utilitarianism measures out the utility of something, or it’s value. Someone that is utilitarian wants to see what could bring people the most pleasure and happiness, so they strive to allow others to be happy and pleasurable. Psychological egoism is a subcategory of egoism. This is “the claim that all actions are motivated by the good to one’s self,” (Leib).
Act = maximises the good. Rule = setting a moral code containing rules. Consequentialism states that an act is only ethnical if it maximises the overall happiness for everyone involved. You do something in condition to receiving something in
Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics begins by exploring ‘the good’. Book I argues that, unlike other goods, “happiness appears to be something complete and self-sufficient, and is, therefore, the end of actions” (10:1097b20-21). In other words, happiness is the ultimate good. But how does one achieve happiness? Aristotle formulates this in the context of work, since for all things, from artists to horses, “the good and the doing it well seem to be in the work” (10:1097b27-28).
A good person will make good decisions, therefore it is important to become a good person. Eudaimonia is a Greek word that Aristotle translate to be “human flourishing”. Eudaimonia is an objective state which illustrates personal happiness as a well-lived life. Aristotle believed that eudaimonia involves activity in accordance with virtue (arête). The activity needs to be rational demonstrating traits like honesty, pride, integrity, rationality and well-being.