The doctrines of happiness: There are different perspectives on happiness, two of which are the hedonic and the eudaimonic views. Both views have roots in philosophy, such as Aristotle and Aristippus. Despite their ancient origins, these views on human well-being are relevant even today. The hedonic view encompasses the idea those people are happiest when their life is filled with positive experiences and emotions, without negative ones. According to Fredrickson et al.
According to Aristotle, everything we do in life, we do for the sake of some good, or at least something we perceive to be good. We call an act good if it satisfies a certain need. The satisfaction of this need is then considered good if it is a means for satisfying some further need, and this in turn is good if it will satisfy still another need. Sooner or later this process reaches a point where it is no longer a means for some further end but is an end in itself. This final end is what Aristotle means by the chief good.
He believes that happiness is achieved through a life full of virtue as well as the expansion of reason and the ability of greater wisdom. This is why we take various actions, to ensure enough outer goods to obtain health, leisure time and the ability to have virtue in our lifespan. Furthermore, another point Aristotle emphasizes, is that moral virtue is located somewhere between extremes and deficiency. That’s where the Greek saying “παν μετρον αριστον” comes from, meaning everything is good but don’t over or under do it. Keep everything in moderation, except virtue.
If we follow this line of thinking there must be a superordinate good that all actions ultimately seek. Aristotle sums this up writing, “Suppose, then, that the things achievable by action have some end that we wish for because of itself… Clearly, this end will be good, that is to say, the best good” (1094a 18-22). Moreover, the existence of a superordinate good does beg the question, of what exactly this good is; the next premise of Aristotle’s argument addresses this very question. As put by Aristotle, “Now happiness, more than anything else, seems complete without qualification. For we always choose it because of itself’ (1097a 37-1097b
A person who is virtuous exhibits all the virtue principles that were listed by Aristotle. These virtues include temperance, courage, magnanity, liberty, proper ambition, magnificence, wittiness, patience, modesty, truthfulness, indignation, and friendliness. Although all these virtues are important, leaders in professional and educational organizations would need the value of proper ambition, patience, courage, magnificence, friendliness and truthfulness. In leadership, thus, professions involve dealing with young people who are experiencing life and what it has to offer. Therefore, dealing with them will require all these virtues (Dudley,
Virtue is a quality, an action that enables each individual to do things well and correctly. It is considered the most appropriate action of each human being’s nature. It is about being the right kind of person and knowing what to do and how to act. Aristotle defines virtue as an excellence of human beings. However, there are some special virtues that are essential and play a very important part in society, specifically, political virtues.
States were created by the people for the sake of people. Therefore, the people should be the master of the state, not the opposite. The core element of any state is her citizens, and the only way to delight the state is delighting her citizens first. It is not moral for a state to abolish the rights for having and raising children. Furthermore, a society that has no concept of family is against human nature and should be refrained.
Aristotle’s moral philosophy called virtue ethics and based on his theory of the golden mean. He wrote about this in his book called Nicomachean Ethics, in which he explains the origin, nature and development of virtues, which are necessary to obtains life’s ultimate goal of happiness. He tries to show that ethical virtues are no different from skilled laborers; these workers know how to avoid excess and deficiencies to make the right product. This is how he describes virtue as the mean between the extremes of excess and deficiency. The mean is what will directly provide each individual with happiness.
In the article “Nicomachean Ethics” Aristotle talks about how virtue is needed for a person to have happiness in their life. A virtuous person is a person that is living with high morally standards and that is living by the great of goodness. Aristotle talks about two different types of virtue. One being Virtue of thoughts and the other being virtue of characters. Virtue of thought is believed to be a good characteristic.
Aristotle filled Nicomachean Ethics cover to cover with claims pertaining to happiness, virtue, friendship, and similar concepts. One claim states that happiness is choice worthy in its own right and self-sufficient, as “it is the end of the things achievable in action” (I.7, 1097b). Another claims finds that happiness requires external goods (I.8, 1099b). The purpose of this paper is to create a complete comprehension of these claims before responding to them. Comprehending Aristotle’s Happiness Aristotle’s claim begins with the introduction of the complete—or possibly final or perfect—good.