The divine command theory, utilitarianism, Kant’s duty defined morality, natural law theory, and Aristotle’s virtue ethics are the five types of ethical theories. The divine command theory states that what is morally right and wrong will be decided by God. Utilitarianism states that “Action “A” is morally right if and only if it produces the greatest amount of overall happiness. Kant’s duty defined morality states that what is important is acting for the sake of producing good consequences, no matter what the act is. Natural law theory states that people should focus on the good and avoid any evil.
The doctrines of happiness: There are different perspectives on happiness, two of which are the hedonic and the eudaimonic views. Both views have roots in philosophy, such as Aristotle and Aristippus. Despite their ancient origins, these views on human well-being are relevant even today. The hedonic view encompasses the idea those people are happiest when their life is filled with positive experiences and emotions, without negative ones. According to Fredrickson et al.
This seems to make sense, as if one is a moral person, there must be some aim of the morality. She continues this by saying “For surely he must want others to be happy. To deny this would be to deny that benevolence is a virtue-and who wants to deny that?” (47) By saying this, she says that benevolence, or caring about others’ welfare or happiness, is definitely a virtue. She then continues, “a benevolent person must often aim at the good of others and call it ‘a good thing’” (48). This provides an adequate definition of what a benevolent person is.
The goal of positive psychology is to assist individuals in creating meaningful lives through the promotion of positive emotions, individual character strengths, as well as, happiness, as key components to optimal mental health. So happiness to Seligman is an important component and essential but it is not the ultimate end as Aristotle views
In many ways virtue ethics looks at the innate or intrinsic presence of virtue in all individuals. Human beings are guided by the goal of ideal happiness and believing that people will make their choices, for the right reasons, because at the core people are virtuous and good (Hursthouse, 2012). Utilitarian Ethics: Utilitarian perspectives are based upon the premise that what is most beneficial for society is that which provides the greatest pleasure or happiness and the least amount of pain or negative consequences for the largest number. In other words it centers on the general philosophical concept of the needs of the many is more important that the needs of the minorities or the individual (Mill).
Aristotle insisted that the order of priority may decide whether one’s goal should be considered as a means or the goal itself. In other word, a goal with lower priority can be a method to achieve a goal with higher priority. In Aristotle’s viewpoint, happiness means the supreme good among other virtues, being the ultimate goal that human-beings pursue. Hence happiness cannot be an optional
This conception allows him to isolate two features of what he determines the ‘end goal’ or ‘final purpose’. The first, it being the most perfect or most complete good and the second, that it be self sufficient. This end is not a subjective object of desire. It also cannot be assumed that this human good is something which all humans pursue. Rather, it is what we should pursue and as such provides us with a standard that can normatively evaluate the good of human life.
So according to Plato, “knowledge” and “virtue” are corollary meaning that as long as one exists the other will follow. He says that as long as you are aware of the truth and you know what the good is, it automatically means you will do the good. We all have the capacity to see the truth and the “eidos” of the good but it needs to be developed. Once it is developed that means it is logical that you will automatically do what
Essential Virtues: Achieving a Good Life Man has always sought after what he deemed a “good life”. A good life is being able to achieve one’s goals, pursuit of happiness, or when life’s blessings outweigh the burdens. Virtues help guide one to become morally excellent and live a fulfilling life. A virtue can be a behavior, personality trait, or habit that affects one’s emotions, perceptions and choice in life. Three virtues that are essential for living a good life are patience, courage and perseverance.
Plato indeed advocated normative thinking; In other words, his claims are about human well-being, moral thought, and virtue. His book “the Republic” is Plato’s greatest work, and its main focus is to help people to reach fulfillment. For instance, his thought about -what is to be happy? Brought
If a person is not happy, that means he failed to choose the right path or decision. If a man is happy, it is because he has made the best choice and has done well as the ideal version of himself. Therefore, a good person is a happy person. Aristotle also believes that a person becomes happy because of the activities that he does that promote the well-being of nature, which has will and intellect. Thus, the happiness of a person depends