Synthesis of flavonoids, anthocyanins and anthocynidins: Flavonoids are coloured compounds imparting colours ranging from red, yellow, scarlet, violet, and blue and so on. There are more than 5000 different known flavonoids. Flavonoids are C15 aglycone skeletons in the arrangement C6-C3-C6 with two aromatic rings connected by a three-carbon bridge. Interestingly, this structure originates of two separate biosynthetic pathways. The bridge and one aromatic ring (ring B) is founded by a phenyl¬propanoid unit biosynthesized from p-coumaryl-CoA (refer formation of p-coumaryl CoA from Phe; above).
The first step is where the substrate enters the active site on the enzyme. It is held there by hydrophobic interactions between the exposed non-polar groups of the enzyme residues and the side chain of the substrate. The second step is where the hydroxyl group on Serine 195, aided by the histidine-serine hydrogen bonding, preforms its nucleophilic attack on the carbonyl carbon of an aromatic amino acid. While this happens, it also transfers the hydroxyl hydrogen to the histidine nitrogen. The nucleophilic attack pushes the carbonyl electrons onto the carbonyl oxygen, which forms a short-lived intermediate.
This identified the product as luminol. 7. Discussion and Conclusion Carboxyl groups, which are made of a carbonyl group and a hydroxyl group, produce carboxylic acids when bonded to hydrogens, alkyls, or aryls. Replacing the hydroxyl group with a different heteroatom substituent will produce a carboxylic derivative, which include amides, anhydrides, esters, and nitriles. The polarity of the acyl carbon atom is produced by the substituent and the electronegativity of the C-O double bond.
Carboxylic acid would react with alcohol to produce ester and water molecules. The alcohol and carboxylic acid used in the experiment are organic chemicals. Carboxylic acid are very polar carboxyl group and alcohol are very polar hydroxyl group therefore the carboxylic acid and alcohol are very soluble in water. This however only applies to the lower member of the carboxylic acid and alcohol group. This is because the the lower member is a very polar molecule therefore the very polar alcohol/carboxylic acid would react with the very polar water molecules.
Free radicals contain an electron (e–) as in case of superoxide (•O2–) radical and the hydroxyl radical (•OH) whereas reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a non-radical do not contains electron in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and organic hydroperoxides (ROOH). Radicals can react with other radicals or with non-radicals depending on availability of (e–). Initiation of free radical chain reaction occurs if polyunsaturated fatty acid is attacked by free radicals. This phenomenon occurs due to abundant molecular oxygen (O2) presence which reacts rapidly with free radicals. By-product of normal aerobic metabolites as superoxide radical (•O2–) are produced by addition of one electron to O2 (a univalent reduction of O2).
(14) A catalyst is a substance that contributes to the reaction, lowering the energy needed for a collision to occur. It does this without undergoing a chemical change itself, and without changing the properties of the reactants. (15) Catalysts weaken the bonds of the molecules, meaning that they provide an alternative reaction pathway to the reaction product, making it simpler for collisions to occur. Hydrogen peroxide is not a very stable compound, so, it is always decomposing to water and oxygen. Even in normal conditions, air can weaken or even break down the bonds in this substance, making the compound unstable.
Flavonoids can interfere with different free radical–producing systems, additionally they can also increase the function of the endogenous antioxidants. The flavones and catechins seem to be the most powerful flavonoids for protecting the body against reactive oxygen species as Quercetin in particular is known for its iron-chelating and iron-stabilizing properties. A 3´, 4´-catechol structure in the B ring firmly enhances inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Epicatechin and rutin are strong radical scavengers and inhibitors of lipid peroxidation (Pandey et al.,
Hydrocarbons are organic compounds that lack functional groups and thus makes it apolar. They are chemically less reactive at room temperature (Oliveira I.N.,2013) and insoluble in water. In this study petroleum derivatives are taken into consideration as hydrocarbon source. Various community play vital role in degradation of hydrocarbon. Petroleum is a heterogeneous mixture of hydrocarbons including aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic in varying concentration depending upon the origin and nature.
Substantial evidence has accumulated and indicated key roles for reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other oxidants in causing numerous disorders and diseases. The evidence has brought the attention of scientists to an appreciation of antioxidants for prevention and treatment of diseases, and maintenance of human health. Antioxidants are compounds that inhibit or delay the oxidation of other molecules by inhibiting the initiation or propagation of oxidizing chain reactions. There are two basic categories of antioxidants, namely, synthetic and natural. In general, synthetic antioxidants are compounds with phenolic structures of various degree of alkyl substitution, whereas natural antioxidants can be phenolic compounds (tocopherols, flavonoids,