# Artificial Intelligence Research Paper

1368 Words6 Pages
Artificial Intelligence & Expert Systems
Prof. Sandeep Kaur
Dept. of Computer Science,
Mata Sahib Kaur Girls College,
Gehal, India sandeepsehmbi83@yahoo.com Abstract: Artificial Intelligence is a branch of Science which deals with helping machines finds solutions to complex problems in a more human-like fashion. This generally involves borrowing characteristics from human intelligence, and applying them as algorithms in a computer friendly way in the words Artificial Intelligence’s scientific goal is to understand intelligence by building computer programs that exhibit intelligent behavior.
This paper presents some back ground and potential of Artificial Intelligence and its implementation in various fields and its history. We discuss issues
INTRODUCTION

AI is generally associated with Computer Science, but Artificial intelligence is the study of ideas to bring into being machines that respond to stimulation consistent with traditional responses from humans, given the human capacity for contemplation, judgment and intention. In the simple words the term

Artificial Intelligence (AI) means "the science and engineering of making intelligent machines” that can take decision like a human. For this we try to combine knowledge from all fields will ultimately benefit our progress in the quest of creating an intelligent artificial being. Each such machine should engage in critical appraisal and selection of differing opinions within itself. Produced by human skill and labor, these machines should conduct themselves in agreement with life, spirit and sensitivity, though in reality, they are imitations.

II. HISTORY

a. The birth of artificial intelligence

In the 1940s and 50s, a handful of scientists from a variety of fields (mathematics, psychology, engineering, economics and political science) began to discuss the possibility of creating an artificial brain. The field of artificial intelligence research was founded as an academic discipline in
Reasoning

It is to use the stored information to answer questions and to draw new conclusions. Reasoning means, drawing of conclusion from observations.

Reasoning in AI systems work on three principles namely:
DEDUCTION: Given 2 events ‘P’ & ‘Q’, if ‘P’ is true then ‘Q’ is also true.
E.g.: If it rains, we can’t go for a picnic.
INDUCTION: Induction is a process where in , after studying certain facts , we reach to a conclusion.
E.g.: Socrates is a man; all men are mortal; therefore Socrates is mortal.
ABDUCTION: ‘P’ implies ‘Q’, but ‘Q’ may not always depend on ‘P’.
E.g.: If it rains , we can’t go for a picnic.
The fact that we are not in a position to go for a picnic does not mean that it is training. There can be other reasons as well.

c. Learning

The most important requirement for an AI system is that it should learn from its mistakes. The best way of teaching an AI system is by training & testing. Training involves teaching of basic principles involved in doing a job. Testing process is the real test of the knowledge acquired by the system wherein we give certain examples & test the intelligence of the system. Examples can be positive or negative. Negative examples are those which are ‘near miss’ of the positive