In 1095 on November 27 in Clermont,France, Pope Urban the II called for a Crusade to help the Byzantines and free the city of Jerusalem. The official start date was set as August 15, 1096. This order little did he know would be the cause of a battle that turned into 9 war’s that last for nearly 200 years. This event in history clearly has a outcome that is way more negative than positive. Have you ever imagined being in the middle of a 200 year war people dropping like flies just because of an argument over one city?
In the reign of Attila, the Huns became the terror of the world, and invaded the East and West, and urged the rapid downfall of the Roman empire.xix Recognizing the great wealth of the Eastern Empire, Attila the Hun directed most his attention in that direction, devastating the Balkans up to the very walls of Constantinople in 447 AD.xx The Eastern court then bought off Attila the Hun with a payment of tribute and with the promise of annual subsidies.xxi When the payments stopped, Attila reacted to this by invading the territory of Gaul. The threat from the Huns was finally stopped at the Battle of Chalons, by the Roman commander Aelius, this was an important win for the Romans. After being forced to withdraw from Gaul in 451 AD, Attila was and then proceeded to invade Italy in 452 AD. xxii “ Rather than an army, Rome dispatched Pope Leo I and two senators to attempt to negotiate with Attila.
His decision to invade Spain backfired when Guerilla Warfare proved Spain’s national strength over France. Moreover, Napoleon’s invasion of Russia in 1812 also backfired. His 450,000 men came unexpectedly face to face with Russia’s Scorched Earth Policy, which burned crops, slaughtered livestock, and destroyed towns. Essentially, it destroyed anything and everything useful to Napoleon’s troops. During the Moscow Burnings, Napoleon’s remaining troops retreated.
Pope Gregory XI returned to Rome in 1377 to find the city in great turmoil. Because of this he planned on moving back to Avignon but this did not happen because he died in 1378. 16 cardinals then met on April the 7th, just a month later after Pope Gregory XI’s death. During this time the population of Rome demanded the new pope to be a Roman pope or at least for him to be Italian. The population howled ‘”Death to the French that terrified cardinals (three Italians, one
Eventually, a large coalition of many European countries declared war on France to stop Napoleon’s expansion that threatened to crush Napoleon’s France (cite 4). Toward the end of his reign, Napoleon realized his Anagnorisis and that had failed and tried to places his son on the throne (cite 3). Finally, at the battle of Waterloo as Napoleon almost broke the English lines, Prussian reinforcements arrived and broke Napoleon's army returning France to a monarchy. Afterward, he was forced into exile for the rest of his days to suffer(cite 5).
The first major persecution of Christians officially sanctioned by a roman emperor began during the reign of Nero in 64 AD. At this time Rome had almost been completely destroyed by a fire and the people of Rome were placing the blame on Nero. In order to attempt to shift the blame away from himself Nero accused the Christians of starting the fire. This began the first large scale persecution of the Christians. Not only did Nero hunt Christians down for execution, but he also tortured them for his enjoyment.
Frederick Barbarossa's untimely death while crossing the Saleph River in Anatolia caused the near complete dissolution of his army. While hardly the first crusading force to meet an untimely demise in Turkey, the desertion of the army following his death highlights the risk of tying a Crusade to a single monarch. The persistent conflict between Richard the Lionheart and Philip II during the Third Crusade further displays the danger of having kings lead crusading forces. The two kings held each other in contempt from the beginning, in part because Richard had reneged on his engagement to Philip’s half-sister. After the two kings successfully captured Acre, Philip II would return home, but not until he agreed to a covenant to not attack Richard’s possessions back home.
The demise of Byzantine Empire began with their defeat during the battle of Manzikert (Rodgers 88). The Turks captured Emperor Romanos IV and humiliated him. During the early 14th Century, two civil wars weakened the empire. The first was a power-sharing war involving an emperor and his grandson fought between 1321-1328 AD. The second war involved the thrones and the aristocracy giving the Serbs an opportunity to invade the empire.
Now, after Rome had nearly destroyed itself in civil war, Emperor Vespasian claimed control and started a program to restore Rome to its former glory, and establish his rule as emperor. This program included an enormous amphitheater that we know as
During the Battle of Wagram against the Austrians that July, Bernadotte performed poorly. Having lost a third of his men, Bernadotte ordered the Corps to retreat against Napoleon’s orders. He gave the French command no warning and compromised the whole left front of the French offensive. While attempting to rally the French forces, the Emperor stripped Marshal Bernadotte of his command in the middle of the battle, which the French eventually won. Bernadotte returned to Paris in deep disfavour and was placed in charge of organising the defence of a British invasion of the Netherlands.
The Thebans soon revolted after his assassination, it was then when his son Alexander the Great who quickly took control of the throne and halted the Thebans revolt, burning their city Thebes to the ground. Alexander then looked at the rest of the world and only two years later did he cross Hellespont into Asia and defeat Darius III of Persia in the Battle of Issus. This victory further pushed King Philip’s plan to get revenge on the Persians for their acts in the Peloponnesian Wars and to also take control of Asia. By the time it was 332 BC Alexander had conquered Egypt and found the city of Alexandria which he named after himself. Alexander then went to Mesopotamia where he, once again, defeated Darius III.
In 1198, Pope Innocent III preached the Fourth Crusade to reinstate Christian lands and recapture Jerusalem. Under Innocent III, for the first time in the history of the Crusades, the pope taxed the church in order to collect money for the war. In this Crusade, advocates followed Richard the Lionheart’s procedure and travel by sea rather than by land. As a result, crusaders leased vessels from Venice. Instead of going to the Holy Land, the Crusaders attacked Zara and Constantinople in order to acquire money to pay their debt and fulfill selfish reasons.
The Crusades was a turning point in history because it depleted the population, made the relationships between religions very strained, and introduced a variety of new ideas and products to the Europeans/Crusaders. The Crusades began after Emperor Alexius requested Pope Urban III to find him a couple of hundred mercenaries who would help him take back the Holy lands after the Muslims had taken it over and had limited their access to their biblical sites. He supported their claim to the crusades by saying that God owns all the land and that it was meant for his children, but since the Muslims stole and inhabited his land, so they must take it back. Pope Urban III gave a speech to all of western christendom, saying, “This royal city, therefore, situated at the center of the world, is now held captive by His enemies, and is in subjection to those who do not know God, to the worship of the heathens. She seeks therefore and desires to be liberated, and does not cease to implore you to come to her aid.”.
The Crusades were a series of holy wars that took place from 1095-c.1300 to reclaim the holy land , although it became a fight for wealth and power. The Crusades were nicknamed the “holy war” because the semitic religions fought for Jerusalem. These nine Crusades were all brutal wars that caused civilian casualties, this occurred during the Dark Ages. The start of the Crusades began when Pope Urban proposed the idea to try to help fellow Eastern Christians against the Muslims. Civilians and Christians mainly thought because they believed it freed the soul from sin and they fought for spirituality.
Many issues throughout history can be looked at differently because of perspective. When looking at both sides of a conflict a person can learn a lot about both sides. The Crusades were a progression of religious wars endorsed by the Latin church in the medieval period. Particularly the campaigns in the eastern Mediterranean with the point of recouping the Blessed land from Islamic power. Christians and Muslims came up with different strategies for fighting the war.