This essay will discuss the different perspectives and emphasis each learning theory, behavioural, cognitive and sociocultural, place on the individual, their environment and their behaviour; as well as which would be best suited to use for phonics lessons in the early childhood education classroom. The three learning theories, behavioural, cognitive and sociocultural all place a different emphasis on the relationship between learning and the individual. As O’Donnell et al., (2016) defines, learning is “a relatively permanent change in behaviour or knowledge that occurs as a result of experience” (p.235, 2016). Behavioural learning theorists place little emphasis on the individual and their role in learning, claiming that learning is a reaction
Introduction. . . Definition of Learning Theory Conceptual framework in which knowledge is absorbed, processed, and retained during learning. Cognitive, emotional, and environmental influences, as well as prior experience, all play a part in how understanding, or a world view, is acquired or changed and knowledge and skills retained.
Chapter 1: Introduction 1.1 Overview For three decades, significant contributions to uncovering the effects of teachers’ cognitions to teaching practices have been widely made which represents an attempt to holistically and systematically look at intellectual changes while learning to teach (Borg, 2003, 2006, 2009). For instance, it has been already acknowledged that novice teachers come to the teaching situation with ideas, perceptions, thoughts, and beliefs, previously constructed by learning experiences, pre-service training, and contextual factors which influence their behaviors, decision making, and classroom practices (Burns, 1996; Hung, 2011; Johnson, 1994; Nishino, 2012; Pajares, 1992; Phipps & Borg, 2007; Woods, 1996). Furthermore,
Learning behaviors have been defined interchangeably by different scholars. For example Fantuzzo, Perry and McDermott (2004) more specifically referred to learning behaviors as apparent mannerisms that facilitate or hinder a child's engagement in the classroom or other learning environments. Moreover, Edmondson (1999) believed that learning behaviors through information seeking and negotiations not only create knowledge, but also are likely to increase performance directly. Learning behaviors lead to performance because dynamic information seeking and discussions promote performance feedback and early error recognition, which are associated with increased structural effectiveness. However, learning is not a typical behavior without
Cognitivism however is said to be a more complex form of learning according to (Ertmer and Newby, 2008) focusing more on the cognitive processes of problem solving, concept formation, information processing ect. (Gold, 2010). Gold et al. (2010) see learning as gaining new information and knowledge that connects to information that has already been retained. Aik, et al.
Application of Cognitive and Motivational Learning Theories and Teaching Strategies. According to Pagliaro (2014) cognitive theories goes beyond observable behavior, by explaining that learning occur as a result of internal mental processes. Therefore, students mental processes are actively involved in the way they process information. In fact, knowledge, memory, thinking, and problem solving are areas associated with development. Piaget (1954) explained that knowledge is viewed as symbolic mental constructs, or schemata.
The more important the information the more likely the individual will be able to recall that information later. However, the meaning is placed on the information itself and not on how the information obtained, as with the behaviourist approach. Cognitive learning theories deal with the issue of how people process and store information to gain an understanding of themselves and the environment, and how their thinking and reasoning influence their actions and reactions (Henson and Eller,
Even in activities- based subjects, when learners are working activities in a group, group discussion or exploration of the concepts are not promoted. This tends to neglect critical thinking and unifying concepts essential to authentic science literacy and appreciation (Yore 2001). This teacher-centered approach of teaching also assumes that all learners have a comparable basic level of background knowledge in the subject matter and are able to absorb the material at the same pace (Lord,
They argue that when applied to the classroom, the concept of learning should be viewed differently. Specifically, • Learning is an active (mental or physical) Learning should be viewed as an active process in which learners receive information and construct meaning out of the information received. Learners
Core Thinking Skills Thinking skills are cognitive operations or processes that are the building blocks of thinking. There are several core thinking skills including focusing, organizing, analyzing, evaluating and generating. Focusing – attending to selected pieces of information while ignoring other stimuli. Remembering – storing and then retrieving information. Gathering – bringing to the conscious mind the relative information needed for cognitive processing.