Assignment: Computer Architecture

1357 Words6 Pages
Name: Umar Abbas Roll no: 15074119-097
Program: BS(cs) 5 Assignment no: 01
Submitted to: Bilal Tariq Butt section: A
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Computer architecture
• It is a set of rules that tells the functionality and organization and implementation of computer systems.
• Implementation is the design of specific building blocks.
• Organization is the interaction between the parts and their control.
• Main components of computer are processor, memory, input and output devices and communication channels through which they are connected. computer system has three subcategories:
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• The first step is fetch. A program will define the exact location in 0 or in 1 form. Part of the sequence is responsible for informing microprocessors of the location of the necessary code within the program. In this processor RAM is used to hold the instructions for a long enough time for them to be used to complete the process (to execute). Basically, it provides memory to CPU.
• The next process is decoding. Set of numbers in sequence are responsible for proper action. It is essential that every part of instruction is identified and give the correct operational parameters, so that CPU orders the correct components to do their job.
• In this process execution comes after CPU tells the components to do their job. During execution processor remains in contact with all the components to ensure that each part of the job is successfully completed.
• The final step involves the writeback function. In this step CPU makes the copy of actions and obtained results onto the main memory.it usually found in hard drive. It is important to find problematic issues when something went wrong.
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the operating system then tells the motherboard that a process needs to be done. The motherboard then tells the processor. In a multi-core processor, the operating system can tell the processor to do multiple things at once. Essentially, through the direction of the operating system, data is moved from the hard drive or RAM, via the motherboard, to the processor. Within a processor, there are multiple levels of cache memory that hold data for the processor’s next operation or operations. These levels of cache memory ensure that processor don’t have to look very far to find their next process, saving a lot of time. The first level of cache memory is the L1 cache. If the processor cannot find the data it needs for its next process in the L1 cache, it looks to the L2 cache. The L2 cache is larger in memory, but is slower than the L1 cache. If a processor cannot find what it’s looking for in L2 cache, it continues down the line to L3, and if a processor has it, L4. After that, it will look in main memory, or the RAM of a computer. There are also different ways in which different processors handle the difference caches. For example, some duplicate the data on the L1 cache on the L2 cache, which is basically a way to ensure that the processor can find what it is looking for. This does, of course, take up more memory in the L2 cache. Different levels of cache also come into play in
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