Cell Division As a eukaryotic organism grows, cells divide and create new cells based on its DNA. This is called cell division. Cell division is the process when a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells. Cell division occurs as part of the cell cycle. The two types of cell division processes are mitosis and meiosis.
5. Describe endocytosis and exocytosis and explain the difference between the two. Exocytosis is where cells expel materials by vesicles. Vesicles is another way that molecules move in and out of a cell. When the vesicle approaches the cell membrane, a section of the vesicle's membrane fuses with the plasma membrane.
There are many structural differences between eukaryotes and prokaryotes that prove eukaryotes to be far more advanced than prokaryotes.The “focal point” for this assignment is on both types of cells and exploration of their structures proving why eukaryotes are more progressive than prokaryotes. The variance among the structures of prokaryotes and eukaryotes is considered to be the most important distinction between groups of organisms. The major difference between eukaryotes and prokaryotes is that eukaryotes have their DNA contained within a “TRUE” nucleus, while the genetic material in prokaryotes is not membrane-enclosed. The nuclear membrane is important as it provides protection for the genetic material; it also provides protection against Ultraviolet light, which in turn allows them to be in the sunlight. This protection is important as it also protects against any mutations or damage due to light.
Eukaryotic cells contain many important organelles and without them the cell cannot function accurately. With organelles such as the nucleus which directs cell activity and contains DNA, ribosomes which make protein, the vacuole which is used for storage and in order for the cell to survive; the mitochondria. The mitochondria are often described as the energy powerhouse of the cell as organisms need energy to maintain homeostasis. The mitochondria are found in the cell cytoplasm and are double membrane enclosed organelles ‘which is best known for its critical function in energy production via oxidative phosphorylation, a pathway that generates many more ATP molecules per glucose molecules than glycolysis’ (John Wiley & sons, 2009) . Mitochondria
Cellulose normally referred as the most abundant macromolecule on earth that produced by plant. This cellulose is a type of carbohydrate which often found in plant. The cellulose synthesis can also occurs in other groups rather than plants, such as groups of algae, a number of bacterial species including cyanobacteria and also tunicates in the animal kingdom (Saxena et al., 2005). Cellulose generally consists of glucose glycosidically linked in β-1-4 conformation as shown in Figure 2.1. The repeating unit of the polymer synthesis consists of two glucose molecules bonded together.
There are several of minerals contain in this spread such as protein, lipid, carbohydrate, water, fiber and sodium. Protein is a made up of many amino acid which also called as the building blocks of protein (Lauritzen, 1992). Proteins is made up of about 20 amino acids. Each amino acid has four different groups that attached to α-carbon
Active transport is a process in which both transport proteins and metabolic energy are utilized to transport solutes across the plasma membrane against the concentration gradient at different magnitude, allowing solutes to accumulate even when their concentration outside the cell is lower. There are a few characteristics of active transport which play significant role in solute transport whereby the carrier proteins possess solute specificity in enzyme-substrate relationship, energy is required to change the affinity of transport protein for transported solute at the other side of plasma membrane, accumulation of transported solutes against concentration gradient as well as remaining the solute structure unchanged during active transport. With the aid of active transport systems, microbes such as bacteria can grow efficiently in low nutrient concentration environment since nutrients can be accumulated within the cell with the expense of large amount of energy in the form of ATP or electrochemical
Describe the processes of mitosis and meiosis in details and their functions Introduction Cell division does not stop with the formation of the mature organism but continues in certain tissues throughout life. It is because cell cannot grow any larger. Besides, cell division is necessary for the repair and replacement of aged or dead cells. Moreover, it is necessary for the growth and reproduction. There are two distinct types of eukaryotic cell division: Mitosis and Meiosis.
Apart from whether it is metabolism dependent or independent; the mechanisms also are classified based on whether it is extracellular accumulation, precipitation, cellular sorption or intracellular accumulation. Intracellular transport and metabolism dependant biosorption requires the cell to be active; hence, this process is possible only with viable cells. Non-metabolism dependant uptake mostly involves physico-chemical processes where the metal