Punishment, on the other hand, is a negative event or outcome that causes a decrease in the behavior it follows. 19. What are the four schedules of Reinforcement? • Fixed-ratio schedules • Variable-ratio schedules • Fixed-interval
One curriculum that some schools follow is known as an Anti-Bias Curriculum. The Anti-Bias Curriculum was created to nature young children and teach and educate them about issues of diversity and equity in the classroom. There are four main goals of an Anti-Bias Curriculum, they are, to gain knowledge of a confident self-identity, gain experience of interacting with people from diverse backgrounds, think critically about bias and learn to stand up for others and themselves in a time where they face bias (Hohensee & Derman-Sparks, 1992). When establishing an Anti-Bias, classroom setting and learning environment for student’s teachers go through a process of four identifiable phases.
Lastly, negative punishment is when desired consequences are removed such as material items. What this theory engages with is the assumption that the engagement of behavior begins after the observation of similar behaviors in others. (Wong,
However, even if initially people are making attributions to someone’s internal state, they can change this way of thinking and recognize outside situations. Only if someone is not distracted, because it involves a conscious effort to change these thoughts. Gilbert’s theory argues often people do not get to situational attributions if they are not able to cognitively because of distractions or they do not have the information to infer a situation affected the behavior. However, many people, as Wallace states, may not get to this step in the model because they simply do not care to see outside themselves at that moment. It can be extremely difficult for people to see past their own situation in the first place, especially in irritating situations like heavy traffic or a busy grocery store.
Students who suffer from depression may be able to find a way to overcome those negative thought and can enjoy life. These techniques can also be taught to teachers and parents. Parents, teachers and counselors can work with the student when they focus on what is working instead of what is the problem. Emphasizing on what works, gives the attention and priority to the student through a positive approach. The Adlerian-Based Positive Group counseling interventions can be applied to diverse students.
Teachers can observe how children interact with each other. Children that spend a lot of their recess alone or not participating with their peers, may need to more observation from teachers. This can sometimes show a child that emotional issues or a deeper underling cause. Recess allow students to learn through hands-on experiences and exploratory play, which lead leads to overall cognitive development. Another good reason to keep recess in school is that it could help cut down on the childhood obesity rate.
For learning, it establishes new connections between stimuli or between a stimulus and a response. These theories do not necessarily deny the existence of internal and abstract processes (intermediate variables mental processes ...). However, as it is not possible to observe these processes as the mental functioning of the subject is not accessible both neurobiological and psychological, behaviorism rather not consider. Social learning theory (module 1.2) It takes the concept of direct experience (differential reinforcement of responses produced by the individual) of (neo) behaviorists but which he can not explain that part of learning. It complements this approach by the experience (or learning and by extension, reinforcement) vicarious achieved by observing the consequences of behavior produced by another.
Assessment Assessment is used to determine if learning has occurred during instructional process (Smith and Ragan, 2005, pg.10). There are 2 form of assessment in the program: formative assessment and summative assessment. Learners will be evaluated by verbal questionings and 1 supervised practice using a skill checklist (Appendix 2) as formative assessment. From Melland and Volden (1998) discussion, classroom assessment is a type of formative assessment, 3 domains of learning which is cognitive, psychomotor and affective can be assess. When engaged in instructional design, it is less common for the designer to have affective objectives than cognitive objectives (Smith and Ragan, 2005, pg.
It is mentioned that working in a group creates a comfortable and relaxing environment, so the students are provided more opportunities for face to face interaction, for negotiation, and for students to build social relationships. Ezeanyanike (2013) said that students working together are participated in the learning process instead of listening in a passive way to the teacher presenting or reading information for them. For example, in pair discussion, one is listening and the other is discussing questions given by their teacher. This encourages their interaction through discussing them, receiving feedback from their partner and responding to questions together. Interaction is well promoted in group learning activities.
“Attribution Theory (B. Weiner),” by John Cherry, discusses the general idea about how something causes something else to happen and how that affects human behaviors. You may not think much, but simple things such as skipping class or working extra hours will show its effects in the future and will alter the way you perceive that, good and bad intentions. Cherry states, “Attribution has three stages: when the behavior is observed, when the behavior is determined, and whether the behavior causes internal or external ambition” (Cherry, J.). What this quote means is that it is important to mention behavior because it determines one’s self-esteem too. When you are confident in doing something you tend to do it more often, however, when you are unconfident in doing doing something you try to avoid doing it.