Human populations have been constantly locked in an evolutionary arms races with pathogens and diseases that have invaded our systems. We must recognize that these mechanisms are continuously evolving, in which we must develop better ways to elude them and control their evolution. To control hereditary diseases in humans, such as Huntington’s disease, researchers must study the evolutionary histories of the genes causing the disease. In this way, an understanding of evolution can enhance the quality of all human life.
The infant may develop temporary muscle weakness and associated findings (i.e., transient neonatal myasthenia gravis). The passage of anti-acetylcholine receptor antibodies through the placenta to the unborn child during pregnancy may cause this condition to the infant. Some of the myasthenia gravis is inherited as an autosomal recessive, or more rarely, an autosomal dominant condition is described as congenital myasthenia gravis. The individual that inherits two copies of an abnormal gen for the same trait from each parent, the individual will have recessive genetic disorders. If the individual receives one normal gene and one gene for the disease, the person will be a carrier for the disease but usually will not show symptoms.
There are some cases where the disease can either be autosomal recessive or X-linked, but these are less common.1 ALS is a disease that affects motor neurons, eventually causing muscles to become weakened to the point of not being usable and breathing becomes increasingly difficult. Individuals with this disease lose the ability to walk, have difficulty chewing or swallowing, lose mobility of other muscles, and gain difficulty in breathing. Their muscles often become thinner due to atrophy. Symptoms of ALS do not typically develop until the person affected is
Breaking down the disease “amyotrophic lateral sclerosis” word for word can help you understand how this disease affects someone. The word “Amyotrophic” comes from the Greek language. “A” means no, “myo” refers to the muscles, and “Trophic” means nourishment. This translates to “No muscle nourishment.” When a muscle has no nourishment it wastes away and cannot be used.
This disease is called Huntington’s disease (HD). [1,2,3] While some differences between Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s are noticeable, the similarities are striking. The similarities in causes, symptoms and treatment of both PD and HD are the most apparent. At first, PD is caused by some genetic factors, and HD is, too. [4,5] Like PD, HD has equal movement symptoms that are characterized by an abnormal way of movement such as walking in *an unbalanced way.[6,7] Also, both PD and HD affect the patient’s personality and memorizing ability, which usually leads to cause depression and forgetfulness.
3, 4, 6b, 8, 10 Clinical signs include muscle weakness and atrophy, exercise intolerance and a paddling gait. Dysphagia and regurgitation are frequently seen with degeneration of the esophageal and pharyngeal muscles. Creatine kinase levels are elevated and there are bizarre discharges on EMG.
One can only get spinal muscular atrophy only if both of their parents had copies of a defective gene. Furthermore, if the
French physician, Antonie Marfan, discovered this disease in a 5 year old girl. The child had extremely long/thin fingers and arms that resembled a spider. Marfan’s patients shared some things in common. They all had long/thin arms and fingers, they were all thin, and they all had a tall height.
Autism There are many common diseases that modify the functions of the human body. Neurological diseases, for example, could affect anyone at any time. The worst kinds of neurological diseases are those which can affect the functions of the human brain. A well-known example is autism, and it has become a widespread disease among children. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 1 of every 68 children in the U.S would have autism spectrum disorder; moreover, the study shows that 1 in 42 boys and 1 in 189 girls would have autism spectrum disorder (1).
Intellectual disability can be caused by any condition that impairs development of the brain before birth, during birth or in the childhood years. Several hundred causes have been discovered, but in about one-third of the people affected, the cause remains unknown. The three major known causes of intellectual disability are Down syndrome, Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) and Fragile X syndrome. The causes can be categorized as follows: • Genetic conditions - These result from abnormalities of genes inherited from parents, errors when genes combine, or from other disorders of the genes caused during pregnancy by infections, overexposure to x-rays and other factors. There are many genetic diseases associated with intellectual disability.
This disease has killed lots of people and so far, scientists have not found out the reason for people getting it or how to cure it the only drug known to help slow down the disease is called riluzole (“ALS”). No other drug has been able to stop ALS from
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a degenerative neuromuscular disorder that affects the motor neurons of the spinal cord and brain. Due to degeneration or destruction of the motor neurons, muscles throughout the body begin to become weak and waste away to the point that an individual has no muscle movement. In most cases, due to having muscle strength, a patient with ALS will succumb to their disease because of respiratory failure or dehydration and malnutrition. It is a progressive disease with a prognosis of 3 to 5 years after initial diagnosis. There is no cure for the disease as of now.
Dementia is a serious disorder caused by a variety of brain illnesses which affects a person memory .There are three symptoms stages which are early,middle,and late stages. A Person with dementia lose the ability to think well enough to do everyday activities or solve problems.It is also difficult for a person with dementia to interact with others which makes this disease overwhelming for the families of the Patient.The number of people who have dementia is currently estimated at 47.5 million.There is no cure or treatment that can prevent or slow dementia.However, There are many ways to help and support the lives of an infected person.
RARE PEDIATRIC DISEASE DESIGNATION FOR THE POTENTIAL TREATMENT OF DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a serious and rare genetic disorder characterized by progressive muscle degeneration and weakness, primarily affecting boys. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 15 out of every 100,000 males, aged between 5 and 24 years are affected. Symptoms usually start appearing in early childhood between 3 and 5 years of age. Gradually, the disease progresses with the weakening of skeletal or voluntary muscles in the arms, legs, and trunk. Due to this progressive muscle weakness, often the patients become bound to the wheelchair at an early age.