4. Every cause then, must have a separate cause for itself; leaving an infinite series of efficient causes. 5. If there is an infinite series of causes, then there would be nothing to set the series in motion (an infinite set of connected gears cannot move until one of them initiates movement) 6. Therefore, because we certainly do see movement, there must be a first efficient cause 7.
This is, as oneness in itself, which I say is indivisible wholeness, cannot be said of the one unless the one partakes of being, as is evident from the being argument at the end of Deduction 1 (142a). Thus, this oneness can still be a part of the one, and only possibly a part of the one when in connection with being. It may seem that oneness, which I claim can be indivisible wholeness, cannot itself have parts, since it is indivisible, and, therefore, not allow the one to be unlimited in multitude in Deduction 2. On the other hand, by allowing oneness to be indivisible and only allowing it to exist when it participates in being, I do not believe this infringes the one’s unlimitedness. Rather, this indivisible oneness will be unlimited in itself, since it has no beginning nor end (as stated in Deduction 1).
He says that you would gain much more by betting that God does exist. If someone believed that God does exist they would obtain Heaven, but if they believed God exists but God doesn’t then they lose nothing. If a person did not believe in God and God does exists then they would obtain Hell and severe misery. If a person did not believe God exists and God does not exist, they would lose nothing. Pascal’s wager states that a person cannot come to know God by reason alone so it is best that a person lives as if God does exist, because a person would not lose anything if God did not exist.
It cannot stray when it is fixed on the Eternal Good, but it can stray when it turns toward evil or the wrong goal. Though rational love is indeed the seed of every virtue, it is also the origin of every vice or perversion. The three specific perversions of rational love are; misdirected love (pride, envy, wrath), a deficient love of primary good (sloth), and an excessive love of secondary goods (avarice, gluttony, lust). Through Virgil’s lesson, Dante learns the root of his sin, and can better understand why they occur. Knowing the root of one’s sin is incredibly valuable, as it can be used to prevent the continuance of the sin
He knows himself as “subject to an infinitude of errors” (20, Descartes) but then begins to question how it is possible that he makes errors after being the product of a non-deceiving God. After deliberating this thought, Descartes comes to the realization that the errors he makes are due to a lack of something such as intellect that is a result of his lack of perfection and is not a result of something God has attributed to him. With this goes along with the idea that everything God creates, because he is infinite, is perfect and because Descartes is finite there will always be room for error. However, a main attribute God has given him that is the closest attribute of resemblance to God is that of free will. It is the misuse of this free will that leads to error due to the fact that Descartes does not fully understand it; therefore free will “easily falls into error and sin and chooses the evil for the good or the false for the true” (21, Descartes).
Tzu uses figurative words as a main form of procedure to back up his arguments. He argues that there is no unique way to live a perfect life other than to do what is right universally and there is no large amount of blessing beside breaking yourself free from bad luck. Tzu also argues that, every human being is being born different, some are fortunate and other are less
One might argue that if all humans are innately good and if they all have a conscience to account for, the reason of the existence of evil in people cannot be explained. However, those who build such arguments often forget to consider the effects of outside factors on morals. It is reasonable to argue that all actions have a reason, good and evil are not different. Good actions are derived from ‘the seeds’ that everyone inherently possess. (Mencius, 2A.6) Evil actions, however, are merely a result of interactions.
Evil results when man disrupts the natural processes, Taoism says, and the cure is to be found in flowing effortlessly with the tide of nature. Confucianism holds that evil is caused by man’s ignorance or refusal to know and obey the laws of the universe. Western Explanations of Evil: If it is assumed that the universe is self-existent – that there is no creator and no transcendent meaning – the existence of evil has to be explained only in terms of the universe. If one views the world as negative, without order, or perhaps as essentially destructive, there would be no problem in explaining evil; instead, the problem would be to explain the good. However, the philosophical and theological traditions of the West have affirmed that there is a transcendent reality that is essentially