African -American history predated the emergence of the United States as an independent country, and African – American literature was similarly in deep roots. Jupiter Hammon who was considered as the first published Black writer in America, he published his first poem named, “An Evening Thought: Salvation by Christ with Penitential Cries”in 1761. Through his poem, he implemented the idea of a gradual emancipation as a way to end slavery. His idea was later reprinted in some works such as Le Mulatre a short story published in 1837 by Victor Sejour
W.E.B DuBois’ plan was smarter than Booker T. Washington’s because DuBois’ plan was to fight for the rights of African Americans, and give people a good and equal education. Booker T Washington’s plan was to ignore segregation and discrimination so he can just focus on the wealth and education of former slaves to win over the whites acceptance.
To begin, the men had conflicting ideas about what constituted as African American equality. Booker T. Washington argued that the accumulation of wealth and the ability to prove that Blacks were productive members of society would be the mark of true equality for African Americans (Painter, 155). Because of this, Washington was less concerned about political rights and more on promoting the policy of accommodation. In other words, Washington felt that equality could be achieved by appealing to the white Southerner. Washington urged Blacks to accept segregation for the time being and focus on proving their equality through financial independence (Painter, 155).
The thirteenth amendment stated that all former slaves were granted freedom. The reconstruction period, “did create the essential constitutional foundation for further advances in the quest for equality”. It laid the building blocks for the future building for civil rights not just for blacks but women and other minorities. Former slaves, “ found comfort in their family and in the churches they established”. Blacks took community in each other and bonded over the mutual idea of freedom . They found each others company comforting a new way rather than the idea of fear bring them together. African Americans also, “enthusiastically participated in politics”. Black happily voted and became equal, by law, to whites because their voices were heard when it came to the
In the mid-to-late 1800s the African American community faced opposition and segregation. They were segregated from the whites and treated as second-class citizens. This segregation was caused in part by Jim Crow laws. Jim Crow laws separated races in schools, hospitals, parks, public buildings, and transportation systems. Both Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois had ideas on how to improve African American lives, Washington believed in starting at the bottom and working up whereas Du Bois had an opposing viewpoint he saw starting from the bottom as submissive and believed African Americans should hold important jobs in order to demand equal treatment.
Although slavery was declared over after the passing of the thirteenth amendment, African Americans were not being treated with the respect or equality they deserved. Socially, politically and economically, African American people were not being given equal opportunities as white people. They had certain laws directed at them, which held them back from being equal to their white peers. They also had certain requirements, making it difficult for many African Americans to participate in the opportunity to vote for government leaders. Although they were freed from slavery, there was still a long way to go for equality through America’s reconstruction plan.
Imagine Being forced to work hard labor day and night for someone who treated you badly. How you you feel if you were forced into slavery and then laws changed to worse conditions? Four million African American Slaves may have gained their freedom, but the process of rebuilding brought the South significant challenges. Conflict continued between the North and the South as the whites resentment towards the South lead to violence. After the destruction of the Civil War, the United States an immense challenge of rebuilding. The Reconstruction Era started after the War ended which was in 1865. For all Americans, Reconstruction was a time of fundamental changes. As for the freed slaves it was unsuccessfully achieved socially, economically, and politically.
Booker T. Washington was born a slave and worked as a janitor to get through school. Whereas W.E.B. Du Bois was born in the North and faced very little discrimination, and had an easier time getting into College. They were well educated, and the only difference between them was how they were raised in different environments. Both were on the journey to improve African American’s social and political status in America. However, they had different methods for getting what they wanted. Regardless, they were able to aid in ending discrimination and received equal standing in education, labor, acquiring of land, etc.. If it had only been Du Bois fighting for equality, then he would have achieved the fight for equality sooner. On the contrary, Du Bois only provided one view to how African Americans were being treated; Washington had a friendlier approach. This may be due to his fear of being lynched or placing African Americans in a harsher situation than they already were. Washington seemed more methodical—he was thinking about African Americans having the full rights of the 14th and 15th amendments. At the same, he was also concerned about the consequences of his speech, and if it angered the whites more than it relieved the situation they were all facing. Washington and Du Bois had every intention to improve the social and political status of African Americans, but they sought different plans to achieve such goals due to their different upbringings, values, and opinions.
Thesis statement: The two great leaders in the black community debating about the issues that face the Negro race and Du Bois gave a compelling argument by using pathos, logos and ethos to create an essay that will appear to all readers.
The Atlanta Exposition Address by Booker T. Washington (1856-1915), written as a strategy in order to combat racial tensions in the South. Washington was born into slavery, where he worked on a Virginia plantation until emancipation in 1865. He then moved to Virginia with his mother, and taught himself how to read and write. After many years of saving he enrolled in the Hampton Institute (later called Hampton University) in 1875 and Wayland Seminary from 1878-1879. He would later become a teacher at Hampton, and after recommendation from Hampton’s president, he was selected to lead Tuskegee University. He served as principal and founder at the newly built normal school that trained blacks to become teachers and agricultural industrial workers.
Reconstruction transformed African Americans lives and improved their lives while it was happening. The thirteenth amendment made it so that all African Americans were freed, but they didn’t always benefit from that. However, most southern states passed “Black Codes” that restricted the rights of African Americans. Though African Americans were granted rights, under the fourteenth amendment their rights were often violated. During Reconstruction, African Americans were better off than they had been before and better off than they would be in the years following Reconstruction. For the first time, African Americans were free, slavery was a thing of the past, and many African Americans hoped for a bright future.
In September 18, 1895, Booker T. Washington gave an address, that was known as the “Atlanta Compromise”, at the Atlanta Cotton States and International Exposition. The fact that Mr. Washington was invited to speak to this all-white southern audience, was itself a historic event. In his speech, Washington made the argument that the African-American people should not ask for the right to vote, they would not retaliate against any racist behavior, and they would tolerate segregation and discrimination. Washington strongly argued that African Americans to get rid of Reconstruction-era notions of social equality. Booker T. Washington gave a couple proposals during this speech in Atlanta. Instead, he argued, most Southern blacks should pursue
Booker T Washington stated in an 1890 article published in the nationally read monthly magazine Christian Union that he had "no hesitancy in asserting that three-fourths of the Baptist ministers and two-thirds of the Methodists are unfit, either mentally or morally, or both, to preach the Gospel to anyone or to attempt to lead anyone." Given his status as an emerging black leader and principal of the Tuskegee Institute gave his comments gravitas, and importantly erased any chance of him being accused of racism. His denunciation, with it’s risk of internecine conflict, was in itself puzzling in that he was attacking