Attachment Theory Introduction By definition, attachment is ‘a social & emotional bond between infant & carer that spans both time & space’ (Martin, Carlson & Buskist, 2010). The formation of these emotional bonds is essential for a healthy social life in later years. There are two main theories that are believed to be important in forming attachments. The learning/behaviourist theory of attachment(e.g. Dollard and Miller, 1950) suggests that attachment is a series of learned behaviours and that the core of this attachment is the provision of food.
Based on this concept of attachment theory, the evidence shows that insensitive, unresponsive, and rejecting parental behaviours promote an insecure parent–child attachment, which may lead to the perception of other individuals as unreliable and hostile (Michiels, Grietens, Onghena, & Kuppens, 2008). These perceptions may provoke aggressive and norm-breaking behaviour within social relationships (Michiels et al., 2008) and can be categorised as externalising behaviours. Externalising problem behaviours and personality traits are defined as under-controlled behaviours that manifest as aggression, disruptiveness, defiance, hyperactivity, and impulsivity (Achenbach & Edelbrock, 1978). Different forms of externalising behaviour problems are interconnected dependent on situation or context. For example, a meta-analysis by Card, Stucky, Sawalani, and Little (2008) found a significant correlation between direct (physical) and indirect (relational) aggression, and a medium to large correlation of both forms of aggression with delinquency.
Critically evaluate the evidence on children’s early social development in relation to Bowlby’s views on attachment. Positive intimate relationships with spouses, relatives and friends are incredibly important to mental health in adulthood. John Bowlby 's Attachment Theory shows how relational patterns set early in life affect emotional bonds later in life. In 1958, psychologist John Bowlby pioneered "attachment theory," the idea that the early bond between infant and caregiver, and the infant’s need to be close to the caregiver is critical to a child 's emotional development and have a biological basis to ensure survival. The central theme of attachment theory is that mothers who are available and responsive to their infant 's needs establish a sense of security in their children.
Analytic enquiry of the middle child: While we talk of the middle child and their behavior perhaps Bowlby 's attachment theory could bring more insight as we look into life of the middle child earlier in their life. Bowlby believed that that mental health and behavioral problems could be attributed to early childhood. Bowlby’s evolutionary theory of attachment suggests that children come into the world biologically preprogrammed to form attachments with others, because this will help them to survive. This attachment is primarily done with the mother and that humans have been actually developed a biological need to stay attached to the mother. Bowlby postulates that this attachment figure this single attachment was a secure base for the child to hold on to and explore the world.
Another key feature of Attachment Theory are internal working models. These working models are created patterns of attachment, usually formed during childhood development, that affect relational attachments in adulthood. These models represent feelings about oneself and others, which contribute to their behavior in their relationships with others. A person’s internal models are usually subconscious, but can change with a cumulative experience, either positive or
Attachment theory suggests it is the quality of the relationship between the child and caregiver, which ultimately influences development (Sroufe & Seigel, 2011). Ideally, the child and caregiver should express attunement to one another (Sroufe & Seigel, 2011). Ainsworth’s Strange Situation experiment differentiated the securely attached child from the insecure child through the child’s reaction to the return of her caregiver after periods of separation (Sroufe & Seigel, 2011). The securely attached child “actively greet(s) and initiate(s) interaction with the caregiver upon reunion” (Sroufe & Seigel, 2011, p. 4). The securely attached child develops a positive “internal working model” (Schore & Schore, 2008, p. 12), influencing self-efficacy.
3.4./Attachment Theory (188) & Socioemotional Selective Theory (286>). Bjorklund (2015) stated that attachment theory was used to explain the relationship between babies and their parents formerly and the attachments established in infancy were comparatively durable and were repeated in another relationships afterwards in life, it has been employed to illustrate favorable outcome in establishing romantic relationships as well. People who are categorized with security in their attachment would properly have long-term and more cheerful sentimental relationships than others at lower degree of security level, also, we have derived caring of specific age range, that is actuated in elder age of life when connecting with babies and youngsters, majority
Mary Ainsworth also played a significant role in the formation of this theory. She was concerned with innovative methodology which made it possible to expand the attachment theory on the whole. In addition, she derived the concept of the attachment figure as a secure base from which an infant can explore the world freely. On the other hand, a relationship can be referred to a rapport or a specific connection between two or more people amongst each other. Thus, the main essence of the question is to know that in what way do the early-life attachments with parents, friends and relatives build on our perception of relationships in the world and how we are made to act towards adult relationships in the future based on these early ties.
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Introduction to the Study Culture is defined as the way of life of a people. Culture involves the behaviour, the language, the dressing and the religion of a populace, as well as what is acceptable and what is not acceptable to a specific group of people. Culture shock; therefore, relates to the emotional tension experienced when a person moves from a culture he or she is familiar with into one that is totally unfamiliar. Solomon (1994) stated that culture shock is an emotional and psychological reaction to the confusion, ambiguity, value conflicts, and hidden clashes that occur because of fundamentally different ways of perceiving the world and interacting socially among cultures. According to Black and Gregerson (1991, p. 462), culture shock is the stress consequent upon differences in behavioural expectation and the attendant uncertainty with which an individual has to cope.
It is good to recognize how the haven safety and base in secure role of the attachment form happen as same patterns are founds in other type of close spouse attachment in later on life (Mikulincer & Shaver, 2007). The common role in attachment theory is haven safety, with the examination of the child whether the attachment form suggest support or accessible. At some moment like style of adult attachment, the responsive and present attachment form or the intimate relationship in spouse attachment form can fulfils these haven safety roles (Collins et al., 2006). Ainsworth (1991) and Hazan and Shaver (1994) saying that seeking for proximity to be a strategy by a young children to ensures the fulfillment of their survival needs like love, food, safety and home. The survival needs that given by caregiver; the young children will be able to feel protection and safe.