Consumers make purchase decisions based on a product’s symbolic meanings and images, which can be used to create and enhance self-image. According to Graeff, (1997) brands associated images let consumers express who they are, what they are, where they are and how they want to be viewed. A person expects positive reactions from his significant referents, and brand image becomes a symbolic tool for goal accomplishment (Grubb and Hupp, 1968; Grubb and Stern, 1971). A person attempts to communicate to his significant references certain things about himself by using symbolic products. Consumers’ purchase decisions are significantly influenced by social value in that consumers perceive various brand images as either congruent or incongruent with the norms of the reference groups to which they belong or aspire (Grubb and Stern, 1971; Solomon, 1983).
THEORY AND MODEL Philip Kotler (1995) has developed model of consumer decision making process which is widely used to understanding customers purchasing decision. Kotler (1995) stated that a purchasing decision is determined by the customer’s personal characteristic and evaluation process, along with the external stimulation environment. The detail of theories will be state in the sequel: By theory of Kotler (1995), external stimulation can be divided in two groups. 1. Marketing stimulation which is linked to marketing mix (Price, Place, Product, and Promotion).
As explained above, it is the structures that influence an individual on what is the right or wrong thing to do. Attitude is the overall feelings by buyers on how good or not online shopping is towards them, what he/she may benefit if she bought the product, will he/she be satisfied with the product, etc. Perceived behavioral control is about the facilitating conditions that enable one to shop online and the confidence levels of buyers in shopping online. A major advantage of this model is that it studies behavior aspect of individual and their eventual behavior towards a certain
While reading the book I noticed that those two main key points pop up on almost every page of the book. In my finding I also noticed that Gerstle base national identity off of citizenship. In “American Crucible” Gerstle argues that civic nationalism and racial identity shaped the American history, “How both ideals influenced critical immigration and war mobilization policies” and how they “shaped social reform movements”(pg.5). Both ideas are very complex in their own right. Racial nationalism are set to believe that people are held together by common skin color and blood type for the government of self.
Priming is when a person is exposed to a stimulus and their reaction to another stimulus is effected by the previous stimulus. Words can influence our actions and beliefs. One study addressed the questions of whether priming a trait or stereotype could effect a person’s complex over behavior to go along with the trait or stereotype. To do this, they planned to affect their participants performance on tasks related to their abilities. They wanted to see if stereotype priming could lead to the same effect that trait priming had, since a stereotype has a set of traits associated with it (Dijksterhuis & van Knippenberg, 1998).
The use of this hypothesis to hone includes the expert endeavoring to distinguish what's more, right any mistaken convictions held by the customer about the choice making process. It was produced to address the inquiries: ●● why individuals enter specific instructive course or occupations; ●● why they might alter course amid their
It involve advanced engineering application like hemispherical combustion chambers, overhead valves, fully independent suspension, dry sump, rear swing axles and using lightweight magnesium alloy in body of the car, suspension, engine and transmission. The amazing cars of 20th century of this model have the average drag coefficient was mentioned as 0.2455. Later version of model T77 has top speed over 150 Km per hour because of its aerodynamics designs that delivers an low drag coefficient as 0.212. Tatra Company started to manufacture cars from 1897 in Moravia, Koprivnice and today’s Czech republic are all making this company as the third oldest and still existing car manufacturer among the world. Many designers in world were tried to construct the design of aerodynamic car, but Tatra Company was the first manufacturer had introduced successfully as serial production.