Language learners ' attitude has been considered one of the important variables which influence second and foreign language acquisition. Ellis (1994), for example, identifies it as one of the personal variables which could have a positive or negative influence on the process of language acquisition. Krashen (1982), further argues that negative attitude could contribute to raising the learners ' affective filter, hence slowing down the language acquisition process. Attitude, hence, is a multidimensional factor that has affective, cognitive and conative constructs (Ghazali, 2008). It incorporates humans ' beliefs and feelings about an issue in addition to the way they deal with it (McGroarty, 1996).
In the English learning literature, the development of a positive attitude towards learning could be attributed to Integrativeness, or the genuine desire to learn a new language so that one can communicate with the members of the community who use the language as their medium of communication (Dörnyei, 1998). However, as the world has become more borderless as exemplified by the EU and the ASEAN, other attitudinal factors were conceptually included. The additions were attributed to the changing of concept from ‘English is a second language to learn’ to ‘English as an international language’(Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2009). This resulted to the addition of other attitudinal factors that include Direct contact with English speakers (attitude towards actually meeting English speakers and travelling to their countries) ; Cultural interest (appreciation of cultural products from English speaking countries conveyed by the media); Miliu (the general perception of the importance of English in the learners’ friends and family) (Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2009). From the aforementioned attitudinal factors, the following hypotheses were
First and foremost, Kaballa & Crowley (1985) concluded that attitudes of the students toward language learning are believed to affect their behaviors where motivated students will strive hard to study the language and keep on doing their best to improve themselves. Besides, there is a strong connection between attitudes and achievement that has been proved to occur which is also supported by Schibeci and Riley (1986) in their study. Rather than achievement influencing attitudes, they concurred that it is attitudes that influence achievement. This is mainly because attitudes affect one’s behaviors, inner mood and hence learning. So
Jerome s. Bruner, Jacqueline J. Goodnow and George A. Austin’s ‘A study of thinking’ clearly conveys through their work that attitudes are often the result of experience or upbringing and can have a powerful influence over behaviour. There are a number of different factors that can influence how and why attitudes form. Either by a direct experience or by observation, attitudes form directly in response to whom and what the individual reacts too. Social roles also relate to how people are expected to behave in a particular role or context. Attitudes can be learned in a variety of ways.
Language is basically a human phenomenon and it is as complex as human relationships in a society. Learning a second language is a long and complex undertaking. It involves a wide range of language learning settings and learner characteristics and circumstances. The relationship between language acquisition and social characteristics of speakers (such as age, sex, socio-economic status, education etc.) has intrigued lay people for centuries, but it is a general tendency to treat such phenomenon and such studies as marginal or as supplementary.
One of those factors is attitude: attitudes are predispositions to respond favorably toward particular people, ideas, objects, or situations. They learned or changed throughout a lifetime, they can have a great impact on adults learning activities. Tremblay
No longer the importance of foreign language in the collection of knowledge to keep pace with the progress need to emphasize, but rather, noted that it is the only means of communication between nations and civilizations, and the ideal way to expand the perceptions and experiences of the individual follow-up research and novel discoveries. So, learning foreign or a second language is strongly demanding task. In academic setting, it is discernible that learners who are very successful in learning a foreign language , it is due to their strong steadiness, persistence and hard work inside and outside the classroom. Otherwise, it is not the same case for other learners, who are considered as underachievers in their learning a second
MOTIVATIONS AND ATTITUDES OF UPLB LANGUAGE COURSES’ STUDENTS TOWARDS FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING INTRODUCTION Background of the Study The acquisition of another language, may it be second (L2) or foreign language (FL), has long been the topic of interest in various disciplines like linguistics, sociology and psychology. Researchers through the years have determined variety of factors that affect L2/FL learning process such as social milieu, socio-economic status, learning environment and individual differences which includes sub variables as motivation, age, anxiety, intelligence and attitude. Among these factors, motivation and attitude are widely acknowledged as major determinants that differentiate learners and their level of achievement in acquiring a language. Numerous investigations have been done in the field suggesting the role of motivation and attitude in L2/FL learning (e.g. Gardner & Lambert, 1972; Dornyei, 1994; Oxford & Shearin, 1994; Noels, 2001).
Language teaching approaches, methods and procedures are constantly undergoing reassessment. New ideas keep emerging as the growing complexity of the means of communication and the opportunities created by technology put language skills to new uses. In addition, the political, social and economic impact of globalization, the new demands of the labour market that result from it, the pursuit of competitiveness, the challenges of intercultural communication and the diversification of culture are all phenomena that have opened new perspectives on the central role that foreign languages have come to play in the development of contemporary societies. This has far-reaching consequences in terms of foreign language learning. Having become more aware