For this study we rephrased the items of the cope to indicate an action that took place in the past, rather than indicating a "typical" response tendency. Study 3 had two purposes. The first was to investigate the adequacy of the COPE as a measure of situational coping, as opposed to a measure of dispositional coping style. Second purpose was to examine the relation between subjects' general coping styles and the situation-specific coping responses that they make to a stressful event. was based on the fact that people vary their use of particular coping strategies as a function of the kind of situation in which they find themselves (Folkman & Lazarus, 1980).
Social cognitive theory is the most influential psychological theory of the modern time. This theory is presented by the leading and distinguished psychologist Dr. Albert Bandura. He critically observes the human behavior and personality. He figures out the authoritative and dominating factors that shape the person 's personality, thinking, cognition and motivational processes. According to Mulhollem,"Bandura simply observing the others and incorporating this concept into his theory".
According to him, the behavioural responses of the individuals to their environment (specific responses) allow identifying the way in which individuals typically behave in a situation (habitual responses); by grouping habitual responses, personality traits can be identified. Using factor analysis, Eysenck found certain personality traits that he believed were fundamental (super traits) and comprise all the other traits. Initially, Eysenck found two super-traits: extraversion and neuroticism. Later, he found a third super-trait, which he called psychoticism. These super-traits are not categorical, but measured on a continuum: at the opposite end of extraversion there is introversion, at the opposite of neuroticism there is emotional stability, while socialization is the opposite of psychoticism.
It refers to the feelings people develop concerning the level of control over their destinies. People with internal locus of control are more likely to take responsibility for their actions, usually have a strong sense of self-efficacy. Whereas, people with external locus of control blame outside forces for their circumstances, do not believe that they can change their situation through their own efforts, and frequently feel hopeless or powerless in the face of difficult
Cognitive Dissonance According to Webster Dictionary (), cognitive dissonance is the discomfort caused by holding conflicting cognitions simultaneously. The theory of cognitive dissonance in social psychology proposes that people have a motivational drive to reduce dissonance by altering existing cognitions. It 's also believed that by adding new cognitions, a person can create a consistent belief system, or alternative by reducing the importance of any one of the dissonant elements. Leon Festinger was an author, psychologist, and a realm of new light in the late 1950 's.
Thus, the theory assumes that people make causal attributions in a rational, logical fashion, and that they assign the cause of an action to the factor that co-varies most closely with that action. Harold Kelley's covariation model of attribution looks to three main types of information from which to make an attribution decision about an individual's behavior. The first is consensus information, or information on how other people in the same situation and with the same stimulus behave. The second is distinctive information, or how the individual responds to different stimuli. The third is consistency information, or how frequent the individual's behavior can be observed with similar stimulus but varied situations.
In our everyday life, we come across people or institutions that try to exercise power over us, making us to what they want. Lukes (1974) explains that compliance can be secured by the use of force or by people choosing to surrender to others. When people choose to accept the will of others as legitimate or right, we can describe the relationship as one of authority (Lukes, 1974). Assumptions and beliefs that are embedded in the culture teach us learned responses to various problems of survival in any given society (Schein, 1992). In this regard, in 2006, Cuff and Francis discuss Karl Marx’s concept of alienation in which he suggests that those who are in power design cultures in a way that will only benefit them, leaving the others in a state
Another way of viewing the difference between structuralism and functionalism is that structuralists believed that sensations are the basis elements of consciousness; study sensations through methods of inspection “looking within” (Wundt & Titchene); nonetheless, functionalism inspired by William James, believed that psychology should focus on the purpose and adaptive function of consciousness and also believed in practical results of the mental processes. Structuralism focused all of psychology on the experience of an observer. That is, structuralism was based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these elements are related (Hilgard, 1987; Thorne & Henley, 1997). Just as physicists were studying how matter is made up of basis particles, the structuralists wanted to identify and examine the fundamental components of conscious experience, for instance sensations, ideas, and images. Whereas; functionalism, was based on the belief that psychology should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness (the “whys”), rather that its structure (the “whats”).
Freud 's view of transference, Oedipus Complex and the consideration of ego as an agency counter the his belief of impersonal, biological energy mechanisms. (Lapsley & Stey, 2011, p. 8). Freud also describes ego as a province which takes care of maintaining the balance between the external world and the unconscious mind and thus behaving accordingly.
"Early all men can stand adversity, but if you want to test a man's character, give him power" said Abraham Lincoln. Montana 1948 is a novel written by Larry Watson and narrated by David, a 12 year old boy. In the summer of 1948 many lives were changed and destroyed in the small town of Bentrock Montana because of the crime David's uncle Frank committed. Throughout this novel we learn an important lesson that if one doesn’t know how to handle power it can lead to devastating consequences.
There are many concepts I learned in this Human Services course, but there are three main concepts I consider the most significant. I learned about the process of having a values in order to guide vision and mission statements, the significance of the locus of control, and the different way people may react to change. The first concept I learned about was values within a community. There were many values to choose from and many groups in the course had many similar or different ideas when being compared to each other.