The following assignment contains the theories of August Comte, Karl Marx, Emile Durkheim and Max Weber. It also covers the most essential or core beliefs and assumptions underlying their views and theories in one paragraph per person. The reader should therefore expect a complete summary of the most important ideas or views that August Comte, Karl Marx, Emile Durkheim and Max Weber stated in their theories respectively.
Comte's positivism has to do with the search of invariant laws that governs the social and natural worlds, and his way of thinking has influenced strongly the ways in which sociologists have conducted sociological inquiry (Ritzer & Stepnisky, 2015). Comte focuses more on positivism…show more content… Marx believed that these contradictions can be resolved by a life and death struggle that changes the social world. He went on to identify four types of dialectical methods namely fact and value, reciprocal relations, past; present; future and lastly no inevitabilities (Ritzer and Stepnisky, 2014:46-47). Marx believed that between our human potential and the way we must work in capitalist society existed a real contradiction and he further indicated that our human potential is linked with our specific social relations but differs socially as well as historically (Ritzer and Stepnisky, 2014:48-49). Max theory elaborate more about capital, capitalist and proletariat in his theory. Capitalism is divided into two groups which are the proletariat and capitalist. Proletariat are the individual who sell their labours to the bourgeoisie (Ferrante, 2014:12), they also own the means of production. Ritzer& Stepnisky (2016: 1) explained the concept capitalist as it reliant on upon money invested to create more money for profit. Capita is defined as unique to the circulation of commodities below the…show more content… He proposed that sociologists make the centre of their theories on the broad reasons that people pursue any of their goals. He believed that social action is orientated towards one of the four ideal types, ideal in a sense that a measure against which actual behaviour can be compared. Social action involves a mixture of the four types namely traditional; a goal is followed because it was followed in the past, affectional; a goal is followed in response to an emotion like love, value-rational; a goal that is valued is followed with a deep awareness of the symbolic importance of the actions taken to follow the goal and lastly instrumental-rational; a valued goal is followed by the most efficient means without considering the appropriateness or consequence of those means (Ferrante, 2014:16). He preserved that in the presence of industrialisation, behaviour was less likely to be motivated by tradition or emotion and was likely to be instrumental-rational (Ferrante,