Auguste Comte: The Biological Stages Of Development

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1. Empirical Scientific Approach
Auguste Comte (1789-1857)
French legal philosopher who is considered as the founder of the sociological school of jurisprudence. In fact it was he who coined the term 'sociology'. He propounded what is known as ‘scientific positivism’, which is the scientific method to study sociology. He was a mathematician and believed in learning by empirical methods. He brought that empirical approach to the study of law as well. He believed that the facts of society like those of physical universe have to be explained by empirical observation, verification and reasoning. According to him society is like an organism and it can progress when it is guided by scientific principles which should be formulated
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2. Biological Stage
Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)
Spencer is best known for the expression "survival of the fittest", which he coined in his Principles of Biology (1864), after reading Charles Darwin's ‘On the Origin of Species’. Inspired by Darwin he propounded his theory of ‘Organic Analogy’ in his, ‘Principles of Sociology’ (1880). In this theory, he identifies society with a biological organism and traces the similarities between the two. According to him they are:
(1) Both society and organisms grow in size.
(2) As they grow in size their structure becomes complicated.
(3) In both, the differentiation of structure is followed by a similar differentiation of functions.
(4) There are three main systems in both individual organism and society. They are the sustaining system, the distributor or the circulatory system and the regulatory system.
Sustaining system of an organism consists of digestive system by which food is digested and life of an organism, is sustained. In the case of the state there is a corresponding sustaining system which consists of agriculture and industries by virtue of which the State is
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