When the Romans left due to Barbarian attacks, England was left in turmoil of political and military instability. The locals were highly determined and they found a kingdom of their own. They did not wait for any other ruler to advantage of the power vacuum. This was the beginning of massive British Empire. The Britain was seen as a failure at that time.
Nevertheless, his subsequent actions proved to be counterproductive to the revolution and detrimental to the French people. The French Revolution was based upon fear and uncertainty which was exploited by Robespierre illustrating his dictatorial behaviour. Robespierre actively encouraged the riots and violence that plagued France during the Terror because he believed that fear and terror was necessary for the revolution to succeed, claiming that “terror is nothing else than swift, severe, indomitable justice” (Robespierre, 1794). Robespierre compromised many of his ideals at the height of the French Revolution such as his stance on the death penalty. According to Linton (2006) Robespierre compromised his principles because of the anarchy and became increasingly dictatorial
One of the most important causes of the downfall of the Mughal Empire was the religious policy of Aurangzeb. Aurangzeb ended the policy of religious tolerance that was followed by earlier emperors, pushed away the sympathy and support of the Hindus by committing all sorts of horrible actions on them. The discrimination of the Hindus hardened their character and they became the bitter enemies of the Mughals. Another cause of the downfall of the Mughal Fmpire was the revolts in various provinces of the Empire. During the Reign of Aurangzeb, no Governor could dare to challenge his authority.
Moreover, despite the fact that the Mali rulers divided the empire into different regions governed by appointed governors, the Mali Empire did not come up with an effective means to manage its vassals. With its expansive territories, the empire constantly faced serious challenges to maintain friendly relations with its subordinates eager to build their own kingdoms. It cost a fortune to maintain the stability of the empire with its army. Third, the generals posed great threats to the empire. As an eternal truth proves that political power grows out of the barrel of a gun, the empire faced the threats of its ambitious generals while they conquered and expanded its territories.
The British and their East India Company came to India, motivated by political, economic, and social interests. They desired land, raw materials, money, and control. This left the Indians in starvation and poverty, fighting for the independence of their people. British rule served the English with a government designed to control Indians, taxing them when they were dying from famine caused by British economic cash crop policies, leaving remaining Indians illiterate, and never giving them a chance to benefit from trade links. British imperialism had a negative impact on the politics of India because the British taxed Indians even when they were starving, as well as established a government with an army, police force, and justice system that favoured Englishmen.
It is the tension, which is nothing more than an obstacle, between the interworking dynamic of these factors – which drives innovation – that will be examined during the interwar period. The most significant obstacles to military innovation during the interwar period are socioeconomic factors, poor military leadership and the disjointedness between operational concepts and technological advancement. The first major obstacle to military innovation was the global socioeconomic state of affairs. In Britain for example, from 1920 through 1939, the general mood of the public was that of antiwar and antimilitary. Isolationism prevailed and national willingness to invest financial resources into defense was minimal.
He also introduced cultural racism in which people associate beliefs with an illusory culture. It is something that shifts and molds in response to history. In response to 9/11 the world experienced fragility especially those of Islamic faith. Unaware of what the long-term effect would be the emergence of Islamophobia and animosity in the form of violent attacks directed at them from Western countries was consequential. Henzell-Thomas (2004) identified the major problems which were perpetuated by Islamophobia and one of them being “the misleading association of Islam with specific cultural identities and practices, especially Asian and African.
The history of the last twelve hundred years has failed to achieve the unity and this long time was an evidence of this that India was always divided into Hindu India and Muslim. Quaid-e-Azam made the British recognize the ultimate innate spiritual, economic, social and political dissimilarities Importance of Two Nation Theory in Pre-Independence time: The Two-Nation Theory served as the platform for demanding a separate state for the Muslims form British India. The Muslims wanted to preserve and protect their distinct identity and advance their interests in India. They wanted to order their lives in accordance with their ethics and philosophy of life without being overruled by an indifferent majority. Most of all they wanted to follow their religion in all aspects of life.
Dark days of slavery were long past and Pakistan was a new dawn for the Muslims of the Sub-continent. But it was not a dawn that the people hoped for. People managed for the starting years but it became clear soon that Pakistan was not the true realization of Iqbal’s dream. Soon power hungry politicians and military generals started to grab the high positions and all the sacrifices and wounds were in vain. Military coups started to take place when politicians showed illegitimacy and corruption.
With the emergency (1975-77), coupled with the statism and corruption of Licence Raj, the idealism of the concept of nation based on Nehruvian socialism shattered (Radhakrishnan 2). Notions of secularism and such grand-standing slogans like ‘unity in diversity’ could not be taken for granted with the growing communalism – its high point being the demolition of Babri Masjid in 1993. And the Dalit movement raised several uncomfortable questions and ‘pushed the bristly issue of contemporary casteism on to the public fora across the country’ (Poduval 8). The rise of separatist terrorism in Kashmir in the 90s is only one example of threats to the ‘integrity’ of India nation which by now were more vigorous and overt. In a way each element of the modern definition of Indian nation - ‘Sovereign, Socialist, Secular,