C is plotted and fitted to a logarithmic-line to illustrate the saturation effect, shown in Figure 1. Then using equation 12.8 in the lab manual, C/Y is calculated and plotted versus C and fitted to a straight line, shown in Figure 2. From the fitted line, Ymax, which is the maximum number of moles of acetic acid that can be adsorbed on the surface of the charcoal per gram of charcoal, can be calculated from the slope. Then, using Ymax and the value of the y-intercept, K, which is the ratio between the rate constant k1 of the forward reaction (adsorption on the charcoal) and the rate constant k-1 (detachment from the charcoal), can be determined. For calculations, refer to Appendix E. Finally, multiplying Ymax by Avagadro’s number will give the number of AA molecules adsorbed on the surface of one gram of charcoal at saturation.
The isotherm was recorded by Micromeritics ASAP 2020 analyzer and the physical adsorption of N2 at the temperature of liquid nitrogen (-196oC) with a standard pressure range of 0.05-0.30 P/Po. 2.3 Catalytic Activity Measurement After annealing the catalyst bed, it was cooled to room temperature in the same conditions as we used for reactive calcination. The CO oxidation was analysis by gas chromatogram to measure the activity of the catalyst. The oxidation of CO was carried out to measure the activity of resulting catalyst. 2CO + O2→2CO2 -------------------- (1) The oxidation of CO was carried out under the following reaction conditions: 100mg of catalyst with feed gas consisting of a lean mixture of 2.5 vol.% CO in air and total flow rate is maintained 60 mL/min.
2. FORMATION OF HYDRAZONE FROM ESTER Materials required: * The ester which was synthesized in the previous reaction. The total weight of ester obtained was 230mg. * Methanol – 20 ml * P-toluene sulfonylhydrazide (1.2 equivalent ) Procedure: * The ester was transferred in a round bottom flask and it was mixed with about 20ml of methanol and stirring was done on a magnetic stirrer till the ester dissolves in it completely. * In the above RB, a calculated amount of 1.2 equivalent amount of PTSH was added during continous stirring.
EXPERIMENTAL SECTION Materials Materials used for this study were AMD samples, NSW from natural sulfuric hot springs, K2Cr2O7 (0.25 N), sulfuric acid reagent (Ag2SO4, concentrated H2SO4), oxidizing/digesting solution (K2Cr2O7, concentrated H2SO4, HgSO4), standard solution of KHP/Potassium Hydrogen Phthalate (HOOCC6H4COOK), Ferro Ammonium sulphate (FAS) 0.1 N, Ferroin indicators, sulfuric acid (H2SO4), HCl 6, standard solution of Iodine (I2) 0.025 N, sodium thiosulfate solution (Na2S2O3) 0.025N, 2% Starch Indicator, Natrium sulphate (Na2SO4), BaCl2(s), a buffer solution, Ca(OH)2 0.1 M, HCl 0.1M and distilled water. Instrumentation The instruments used for this study were analytical balance, glassware, rubber bulb, pH meter, filter paper, thermometer,
In this experiment, racemic 2-methylcyclohexanone was reduced using sodium borohydride as a nucleophile to give a diastereomeric mixture of cis and trans secondary alcohols. The products were analyzed for purity using IR spectroscopy and gas chromatography. 1.2 g of 2-methylcyclohexanone and 10 mL of methanol were combined in a flask and cooled in an ice bath. Two 100 mg portions of sodium borohydride were added to the flask and stirred. 5 mL of 3M sodium hydroxide, 5 mL of de-ionized water, and 15 mL of hexane were added to the reaction flask and stirred.
In addition, phenolphthalein was added as an indicator. The aliquots were titrated against sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution until end point was reached, after which volume of NaOH consumed was recorded. The value of the rate constant, k, obtained was 0.0002 s-1. The experiment was then repeated with 40/60 V/V isopropanol/water mixture and a larger value of k = 0.0007 s-1 was obtained. We concluded that the rate of hydrolysis of (CH3)3CCl is directly proportional to water content in the solvent mixture.
5-aminotetrazole monohydrate: In a 250 ml round-bottom flask equipped with a condenser for refluxing (90 °C) and a magnetic stirring bar, 5.00 g (5.95 mmol) dicyandiamide (three times crystallized), 7.47 g (11.9 mmol) sodium azide and 11.00 g (17.8 mmol) boric acid and 100 ml of water is added and allowed to reflux for 24 hours, after the completion of the reaction, until the solution pH to about 2 to 3 as hydrochloric acid 37% is added (about 12 ml) Then the reaction mixture was cooled in a refrigerator for 18 hours and the white crystals formed. The mixture was filtered and washed three times with 10 ml of water and and dried in 60 °C for 5 hours and finally 45.8 g of product by it will be obtained. 5-Aminotetrazol monohydrate: Yield:,
pruriens seed extract and FeMPn were characterized with FTIR to determine the biomolecules contained in the extract that involved in the reaction to form FeMPn. The FTIR spectra of the extract and FeMPn are shown in Fig. 5. The FTIR spectrum of the extract showed a broad absorption band in an absorbance area of 3384.8 cm-1 that assigned to the overlapping of O-H stretching vibration of flavonoids, alkaloids, polyphenols, alcohols or water and N-H stretching vibration of amine compounds, due to the hydrogen bonding. The absorption band at 1627.8 cm-1 referred to C=C stretching vibration which is possible to be derived from aromatic ring in amino acid, while the absorption band in 1529.4 cm-1 referred to N-H bending vibration of amine which is possible to be derived from the L-dopa.
Then, putting of choloform in amount of 10 mL and solution of Hanus iodine as amount of 10 mL into conical flask is realized. Addition of these two substance into otheraflask also occurs for blank. Next, waiting for these two samples for exactly 30 minutes is realized. Afterthat, solution of potassium iodine in amount of 15 mL and 40 mL water being distilled are added. Titration of last mixture is performed in company with 0.1 M Na2S2O3 until the obtaining of color in yellow.
Two way to produce activated carbon are physical and chemical activation. In physical activation, under passive atmosphere the material is carbonized, and as the activating reagent Use carbon dioxide or steam.while in chemical activation, different chemicals are used to help with the initial dehydration. (Toles et al., 2000) Activated carbon adsorption
32 100 μL of afore-prepared sample solution and the mixed reference standard were diluted 100 times with ethyl acetate. 50 μL of these dilution solutions were separated on the TLC plate coated with SNISG. The plate was developed with petroleum ether: ethyl acetate (4:1) and the movement of solvent was usually controlled at 1 cm from the upper edge. After completion, the plate was dried until no solvent smell remained. It was sprayed with an ethanol solution containing 10% sulfuric acid, and heated at an infra-red drier until obvious color came up, as shown in Fig.2 (B.ab).