Autoclave Research Paper

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Autoclave Autoclave which is also known as a pressure chamber. Equipments and supplies are sterilize using pressure chamber by subjecting them to high pressure saturated steam. Autoclave is used as nitrator in the production of paracetamol which treat the sodium salt of p-nitrophenol with concentrated sulphuric acid at 35-45°C and acetylation of p-aminphenol which is addition of acetic anhydride into p-aminphenol. Reduction reactor Reduction reactor is used to minimize alkaline liquor trapped into sodium salt of p-nitrophenol. This is possible with proper filtration and water wash and therefore reduce the consumption of sulphuric acid for neutralization. Besides, the dissolved salts content which is in the acidic effluent could also be reduced.…show more content…
One of the unit operation in chemical engineering is fractional distillation. In the chemical process industries, fractionating columns are widely used where large quantities of liquids have to be distilled. Some of the examples of industries which involve fractional distillation are the petroleum processing, petrochemical production, natural gas processing, coal tar processing, brewing, liquified air separation, and hydrocarbon solvents production. Apart from all these processes, fractional distillation has the widest application in petroleum refineries. In such refineries, the crude oil feedstock is a complex, multicomponent mixture that must be separated, and yields of pure chemical compounds are not expected, only groups of compounds within a relatively small range of boiling points, also called fractions. That is the origin of the name fractional distillation or fractionation. It is often not worthwhile separating the components in these fractions any further based on product requirements and…show more content…
Unprotected carbon steel rusts readily when exposed to air and moisture while stainless steel does not. The iron oxide film on the surface of carbon steel is active and accelerates corrosion by forming more iron oxide and, because of the greater volume of the iron oxide, it tends to flake and fall away. Different from carbon steel, stainless steels contain sufficient amount of chromium to form a passive film of chromium oxide, which prevents further surface corrosion by blocking oxygen diffusion to the steel surface and blocks corrosion from spreading into the metal's internal structure. Due to the similar size of the steel and oxide ions, they bond very strongly and remain attached to the surface. Stainless steel is also highly resistant to attack from

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