An essential element in the world of airline business is that most of the largest airlines are enrolled under one of the three major international strategic alliances, Star alliance, oneworld, skyteam , often called as global airline alliances GALs. These networks of airlines provide their members with a resourceful international route portfolio at a marginal cost that would be very difficult to the reach through independent growth. yet still the provision of cross-border air service is constrained by international regulation. Since the Chicago Convention back in 1944 established the rules of airspace, international air transport markets have been governed by bilateral air service agreements (ASAs) between national governments. This implies that the country of registration of an airline and the bilateral agreements of that country with other countries has determined the airline’s possible routes of service and the conditions of capacity and frequency offered.
The environment protection and sustainability are important to be considered in aviation industries. The environment is protected from damages because of the aviation issues. They include nose, air pollution and the energy resources waste. The aviation contributes to climate change and global dimming. If the designers do not concern the aviation issues for environment, the people will face big problems and earth will be damaged in future.
However, most airlines have chosen network structures which causes the network version problem of revenue management to receive much interest as the flight legs are now shared by multiple origin-destination itineraries. Two network structures that have received particular attention in studies of the airline industry are hub-and-spoke networks and point-to-point networks. The hub-and-spoke network problem deals with locating hub facilities and allocating demand nodes to hubs to direct the flow between origin–destination pairs with less number of required links. In contrast, in a point to-point network, all cities are connected with each other through non-stop flights. In fact, route architecture is the foundation of an airline's product.
Naturally caused woes, on the other hand, involve weather related problems such as snow and heavy rain, fire and volcanic eruptions among other factors. Such challenges have resulted to most airports incurring high losses while others are forced to close or form mergers as a way of dealing with simultaneous losses. On a broader perspective, airport woes not only affect the airport itself but also other industries as well. The solution to dealing with various airport issues remains to be a big challenge to various stakeholders and airport management. As a way of alleviating the challenges, it is important to understand the various shortcomings facing the airports operations, their
One of the most common drawbacks of the energy efficient construction is the high cost of enforcing. Although the additional costs are required to build and plan such buildings, they are balanced out by saving on energy expenditure; while, it is still extra money provided to build; thus, additional cost is valid criticism. In addition to this, building materials are not always available. The most noticeable negative feature of energy efficient construction is the environmental concern. Although it is environmentally friendly which produces less carbon emissions, it has slight unfavorable effects on the human health.
Commercial air transportation generates numerous direct, indirect, and induced beneﬁts and can be a driver of economic growth (Button and Yuan, 2013; Green, 2007). However, the development of the nationwide airspace structure and the associated infrastructure has driven the need for assessments of the external costs of aviation. Safety, congestion, local air pollution, water degradation, and climate change are all important and potentially adverse considerations. Aviation noise is one such negative externality that is borne by individuals who may not be the direct producers, users, or beneﬁciaries of the airspace system. Noise is a byproduct of aircraft operations both enroute and in the airport vicinity as well as of ground support equipment.
What challenges do ecological concerns present to traditional theories of international relations? The environmental challenges throughout the world are numerous and complex. Most governments and institutions now clearly realize that environmental issues are now directly related with other social/ cultural and socioeconomic issues. Promoting sustainable growth and assuring the protection of biodiversity on the planet is the only path forward for human survival. Decades of environmental mismanagement have created a severe scenario that is affecting negatively all living beings on planet.
There are numerous career options in this industry, however, the standards are high in this industry and for many roles, one must be tall, good looking and should possess great communication skills in more than one language. Not everyone has these skills and qualifications. However, still a professional can get to work in the aviation industry. The person can choose aviation management as the career option. There are plenty of opportunities in aviation management area.