Eugenol at the concentrations of 0.2 -20 µm is suggested to be able to produce a dose dependent and reversible vasodilator response that are partially dependent on the endothelium (24). EUG has also found to have a preventive effect on dopamine depression and lipid peroxidation, which can protect depression induced by 6-hydroxyl dopamine (OHDA). Eugenol has prevented depression by decreasing lipid peroxidation and stimulating reduced glutathione (GSH) may lead to a protecting effect (25). TOXICITY of EUGENOL Eugenol is considered safe as a food additive but due to the wide range of different applications and also the extensive use and availability of clove oil; there is a great concern about its toxicity in recent years. Results of a case study indicated that ingestion of 5-10 ml of clove oil to a two-year boy resulted in distressing and crying.
 Activating the Mu receptor prolongs the orocecal and colonic transit times by disrupting the gut’s electrical activity, increasing gut capacity, and delaying the passage of fluids through the small intestine, it has no direct effect on absorption  and when used to manage patients with ileostomy diarrhea investigators have obtained significant reduction in faecal loss, improvement in electrolytes and fluid balance have with loperamide therapy. [14, 33] The reduction in intestinal motility and transit time with loperamide could improve the efficiency of the physiological mechanism and is effective in reducing high-output ileostomy. This will hasten the absorption of the medication before intestinal motility is initiated by the ingestion of food.
17.5% endodontists and 18.6% non-endodontists opted chlorhexidine as the irrigant with the best antimicrobial action. It has been suggested that chlorhexidine is sporostatic but not sporicidal 13, and is said to have a disadvantage of not dissolving organic tissue, and therefore cannot be considered as the irrigant with best antimicrobial action. Only 23.3% non-endodontists agree that sodium hypochlorite is the inevitable irrigant during root canal
Working on the success of Abraxane, nab-rapamycin was also prepared. Rapamycin (also known as sirolimus) works by inhibiting the signals from intracellular kinase (mTOR) which further inhibits cell proliferation. Rapamycin also had poor solubility similar to PTX hence, nab rapamycin was prepared to overcome this barrier and increase its efficacy. The nanoformulation proved to be efficacious in preclinical studies (breast tumor xenograft model) and the drug (ABI-009) is undergoing Phase I-III trials in humans for multiple carcinomas including advanced sarcoma, advanced malignant perivascular epithelioid cell tumor, non muscle invasive bladder cancer and recurrent or refractory solid tumors [82,
This kind of Staphylococcus aureus is called “MRSA”, referred to methicillin-resistant S. aureus. This bacteria are multi-resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics, meaning that they are resistant to different kinds of antibiotics, such as penicillin, methicillin, dicloxacillin and cephalosporin. As the process goes, that normal Staphylococcus aureus are being killed by penicillin antibiotic, and the ones that are resistant survived and keep on reproducing, Staphylococcus aureus bacteria that is penicillin resistant spread in the community and its amount kept on increasing. This made natural selection to occur, which the bacteria that are antibiotic resistance are suitable ones and they survived in
(8) Sucrose contains Covalent bonds and Polar Covalent bonds. (9) Sucrose is not an Acid, Base or Salt; it is just a regular compound. (10) Purpose: Sucrose has many benefits, but is not limited to: Monoclonal antibody stabilization (mAbs), Media supplementation, Antibody drug conjugate (ADC), Stem cell preservation, Peptide and Vaccine stabilization. In the pharmaceutical industry, sucrose is an additive to medicinal drugs to make them more palatable when a drug tastes utterly horrible and makes it difficult to intake based upon these conditions. Sucrose is found in both prescription and non-prescription drugs and is responsible for the flavored medications often given to children.
The study concluded that ceftriaxone has no significant effect with this method. We then verified the same via in vitro experiments, although formation of non-creatinine complex was evident. Introduction: Serum creatinine level is an important parameter to assess glomerular function. It can be measured in the laboratory by the Jaffe’s alkaline picrate method and the enzymatic method. Jaffe’s method is the
However, response to treatment is slow, with clinical improvement taking at least 24 weeks o Isotretinoin 0.05% is used in the treatment of melasma. Clinical studies conducted to evaluate its efficacy in the treatment of melasma demonstrated that isotretinoin was associated with reduction of pigmentation o Adapalene is naphthoic derivate a potent retinoid in the treatment of melasma. • Randomized double-blind study reported that azelaic acid was as effective as hydroquinone. However, combination of azelaic acid, with tretinoin or glycolic acid may be more effective in the treatment of melasma. This is may be due to combination therapy produces earlier and more pronounced skin lightening • Vitamin C inhibits melanin formation and inotophoresis is used to increase the penetration of vitamin C. In a comparative study , vitamin C inotophoresis showed increase in brightness of pigmentation • N-acetyl-4-S-cysteaminylphenol is a melanocytotoxic agent consisting of phenol, catechol, and sulphur.
In this experiment, the antimicrobial properties of the powdered forms of three widely used Indian spices: Turmeric (Curcuma longa), Indian Lilac/Neem (Azadirachta indica), Ginger (Zinhiber officinale), Asafetida (Gumm oleoresin) was further investigated. They were compared to the antibiotics Ampicillin and Erythromycin to test whether natural remedies can provide efficient counterparts to pharmaceutical drugs. Two bacterial strains- E. coli and Probiotics (mixture of “good” bacteria) were utilized to understand the effect of antibiotics and natural treatments on ‘bad’ and ‘good’
All the above agents are non-selective inhibitors for the neutrophil driven inflammation that occurs in acute gout. 1. Colchicine - Colchicine has been found to be efficacious when compared to placebo in randomised controlled trial. It has also been very clearly confirmed that high and low dose of colchicine has similar effectiveness, but low dose of colchicine carries a better safety profile as compared to the high dose. Accordingly, high dose of colchicine should be avoided which carries significant gastrointestinal side effects.