He offered an idea that how a country might play a game strategically and could be successful in extracting great levels of revenues from trade, by implementing new trade theories. The comparative advantage theory of Ricardian gained a new aspect as Porter emphasized on development of comparative advantage or innovativeness by improving to sustain greater shares of market. Therefore, the idea of productivity that can be work to attain greater levels of international competitiveness (IC) emerged [Porter (1990)]. Indices based on productivity are extensively used in the measurement of competitiveness. As per Porter point of view productivity is the most valuable thought in international competitiveness.
Topic Name: History of Military Coup in Pakistan INTRODUCTION The military is both an institution of the state and a powerful interest group. Pakistan is a point of turbulent civil-military relations. In the 68 years since Pakistan became an independent state, the military has overthrown democratic governments three times. On each occasion, the act was motivated by violation of law of the institutional interests of the military, and supported by sections of the elites, whose interests had also been compromised. Military dictatorships in Pakistan have been selfish motives and have set policies that heavily favoured elite groups such as the bureaucracy, Islamic clerics and rural landlords, at the expense of the tax payer money.
Mir Jafar had higher ambitions. Arrogant in his position he took advantage of an Ali Vardi Khan weakened by a decade of fighting with Marathas to enter into a conspiracy with Ataullah to overthrow and murder the Nawab. However, the conspiracy was unearthed and he was stripped of most of his powers. He returned to Murshidabad, where he regained the trust of the Nawab's grandson, Siraj-Ud-Daulah, and slowly returned to power and
According to Minh Nguyen (2005) in an article entitled, “The question of failed states” the causes for state failure in the Third world are many including historical factors, internal and external factors. Likewise, Williams (2007), observes that the extant literature on the subject of state failure highlight two relevant distinctions. The first distinction is between states that fail because of a lack of relevant capacities and those that fail to promote the interests of all their citizens through political choice, often with the intention of benefiting the ruling elite and its supporters (Williams 2007). As such the dynamics in this case are somewhat different from instances where a regime may well want to restore order to part of its territory but lacks the relevant capacities. A second distinction points to the differences between structural and contingent causes of state failure.
Uprisings were growing more violent and there was a real fear of a civil war breaking out. Negotiations were taking place with Nelson Mandela. After PW Botha suffered a stroke, De Klerk was elected as the new party leader. Most NP politicians backed FW De Klerk and not PW Botha because they felt he was too autocratic and felt that it would be his fault if a civil war broke out. FW De Klerk was appointed as the new president and he implemented many new policies and changed most of PW Botha’s policies.
It is a day of great victory – a victory of justice over injustice, a victory of truth over falsehood, a victory of light over darkness, a victory of freedom over slavery and a victory of humanity over inhumanity. It is a day of taking on oath of dedicating life for the cause of motherland. It is a day of learning the great lessons that the will of people prevails, for man is born to be free and that the weapons of freedom needn’t be very big and that the oppressors will always be defeated and that eternal vigilance is the price of
After the creation of Pakistan in 1947, different Acts in vogue during the time of British India were adopted in the country. However, succeeding governments in Pakistan were too busy in handling some basic issues such as preparing a constitution for the young country and settling the newly arrived migrants from India, that they had little time for the consumers. In a country like Pakistan where even the basic rights of citizenship are frequently contested before the courts, consumer protection is rather a more problematic and neglected category. Later, military governments took over the reins of powers and consumers lost all voice through the absence of democratically elected assemblies. The result was that consumers and their rights were both neglected.
Political conflicts, inefficiency of local administration, taxation fraudulent, corruption at government levels, cartel of business syndicates are preventing Bangladesh from prospering ahead and achieve development like it’s was supposed to have. Political instability has cost Bangladesh a lot. To measure the political instability is difficult, but the World Bank has come up with a composite index of political stability. There is a strong connection between the crimes and economics. According
Political instability has become a serious problem especially for the developing and underdeveloped countries. Political instability is a major problem in Pakistan. Every politician tries to gain more power and in this game of power, the whole nation has to deal with the consequences. Politicians had their personal interests in gaining the power. Even Quaid-e-Azam did a mistake at the time of formation of Pakistan by appointing some civil servants without any merit.
Eugene’s love for his country changed him into a nationalist. Was it those military coups all around or the deposing of the government that made him relentless? Of late he has started neglecting even his filial duties. I feel that Ade Coker's death and the aftermaths of his articles made Eugene lose the peace of his mind. I sympathized with his instinctive feelings initially but the things were out of my bound soon.