Throughout history many great philosophers have attempted to unravel the origins of virtues by developing moral theories of their own. This document is designed to provide the reader with an overview of some of the more popular theories concerning morals. Three of the most popular moral theories are… Utilitarianism, Kantianism, and Aristotelianism. Though Utilitarianism, Kantianism, and Aristotelianism differ in many ways, they also share similar fundamentals. Utilitarianism is a highly acclaimed theory that is morally based on consequentialism.
In its most general sense, Behaviorism, also known as behavioral psychology, is a theory of learning developing as a result of the ideas and beliefs shared by a group of people who has influenced educators’ view of learning. The term behavioral psychology refers to a psychological approach which principally concerned with stimulus-response activities and emphasizes the role of environmental factors in a learning process, to the exclusion of own free will. There is a tenet of behavioral psychology that “only observable, measurable, an outward behavior is worth investigating” (Bush, 2006, p. 14). Historically speaking, behaviorism was originated in the 1880s and develops gradually in the twentieth-first century and beyond. Skinner and
This essay is occupied with analyzing whether the agentic state theory developed by Professor Stanley Milgram is a valid explanation for the behaviour of participants in obedience experiments. It starts with defining and describing the abovementioned theory and continues with providing academic research evidence, in order to illustrate the arguments for and against the statement presented above. The essay ends by providing the key conclusions drawn from the analysis, while also attempting to give an answer to whether Milgram’s agentic state theory could indeed be characterized as valid in explaining the behaviour of participants in obedience experiments. The agentic state theory is one of the two main theories that Milgram has developed (the other is the theory of conformism), in order to explain the behaviour of its participants in its obedience
3.1) Theories of Behaviour Management Behaviour management is a tool, a system, generates learning environment to encourage positive behaviour and minimise the opportunity for negative conduct to occur. It is like modifying and change learner's action in a positive manner where the primary focus lies on maintaining order. Many theorists presented their views in their research work on the understanding of the nature of the behaviour BILL ROGER is an education consultant and author present his work on behaviour management, discipline, effective teaching, and stress management etc. and also lectures widely covers the topic to both the learner and the teacher for the challenges facing in leadership in educational premises. Bill Roger recommended
In the Educational Leadership article entitle “The Boss of My Brain”, authors Donna Wilson and Marcus Conyers examines the explicit instruction in metacognition. Researchers stated that “explicit instruction in metacognition puts students in charge of their learning.” It was also stated that “meta-cognition supports learning by enabling us to actively think about which cognitive strategies can help achieve learning, how we should apply those strategies, how we can review our progress, and whether we need to adjust our thinking.” I believe this a unique teaching tool for teachers to implement with their students. With the use of metacognition, students whether they are struggling learners or gifted can learn how to use a variety of cognitive strategies to help improve their learning.
That since human corrupted values is a product of society, we need to critic society and its institutions and strive towards the conceptual idea of a “natural” society. John Locke another influential political philosopher, also argues that “beliefs, like other human differences, [are] largely the product of environment” and thus the fault of human irrationality is to be blamed on society. This theoretical reasoning is based upon the huge assumption that Man is naturally morally good. Blaise Pascal another major influence to Mainstream enlightenment reasoning, published his influential book Pensées posthumously in 1670, in which he tries to objectively convince that its better to believe that God exists, for you will be faithful and rewarded by God in the case he does exist. That if you don’t believe in God in the scenario he does exist, you shall receive divine punishment.
Hobbs’ theory states people can be influenced to commit crime. He used this to try and predict and reduce certain types of crime. 1700s political philosopher and criminologist, Cesare Beccaria, was one of the greatest theorists during the Enlightenment. Beccaria contributed the classical theory by
In the late 18th century, German philosopher Immanuel Kant wrote extensively on the basis of morals. In his Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals¸ Kant describes the dichotomy present in humans which is a result of humans being both a rational and a natural creature. The rational portion of human pulls them towards acting morally through use of reason. At the same time, the natural aspect of human beings acts as a counterweight, pulling people towards their natural inclinations, especially self-interest. The strength of this counterweight seems massive when a look is taken at human history.
An example of this is Voltaire and Rousseau. Voltaire was a prominent Enlightenment thinker who advocated that reason and intellect were the keys to an improved life. Rousseau contributed to both the Enlightenment and Romanticism with his views of equality. Rousseau “argued that inequality was not only unnatural, but that--when taken too far--it made decent government impossible” (Brians, “Enlightenment”). His argument was more based on emotion than Voltaire’s because the issue of equality is largely an emotional one.
Career development is the process of the personal development at the workplace. It’s a part of human development that lasts over one’s lifetime. Which includes education and training. There are several factors and interactions that influence career development. This paper will view the concept of Krumboltz theory and how it plays a part in my personal life.
Ethics are a big deal to our society today. Its what guides are experiments and are a defining line for experimenters in todays day and age. Back then in the late 1900’s was much different. Experiments could push that idea of ethical much farther then they could today. In Milgram,s study of obedience, raises a question of not just ethical but moral as well.
Teaching My Cousin's Dog to Sit with a Clicker Operant Conditioning is a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforce of diminished by a punisher. Operant conditioning was first introduced when B.F. Skinner discovered, while he was studying the psychology of behaviorist movement, and the individual learns a particular behavior through interaction with the environment. There are many ways to apply operant conditioning to everyday life. In the environment, the events or stimulus that occur would result in the individual changing their behavior when the individual interacts with the environment. For example, if the individuals' person performs a specific action, they get a positive reinforcement, such as a treat.
The quote stated by Lorraine Hansberry in the second prompt is basically an embodiment of B. F. Skinner’s theories. The quote states “It’s simple. You read books—to learn facts—to get grades—to pass the course—to get a degree. It has nothing to do with thoughts.” Skinner, the father of Behaviorism, invented many terms used in psychology today.