Bf Skinner's Theory Of Behaviour Modification

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1. B.F. Skinner: Behaviour modification
Positive and negative reinforcements or rewards and punishments are used to modify or shape learner’s behaviour. B. F. Skinner’s entire system is based on operant conditioning. The organism is in the process of "operating" on the environment, which in ordinary terms means it is bouncing around its world, doing what it does. During this "operating," the organism encounters a special kind of stimulus, called a reinforcing stimulus, or simply a reinforcer. This special stimulus has the effect of increasing the operant – that is, the behavior occurring just before the reinforcer. This is operant conditioning: "the behavior is followed by a consequence, and the nature of the consequence modifies the organisms
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George Boeree: Personality Theories B. F. Skinner

2. Fritz Redl and William Wattenberg: Group life and classroom discipline
Learners are encouraged to understand their behaviour and actions and to know that these differ between individuals. Supports self-control. Uses pleasant or unpleasant situations to modify behaviour.
Classroom discipline refers to the efforts of a teacher to help students learn to conduct themselves in a responsible manner (Charles, 2011).
Redl and Wattenberg believe that students behave differently when they are in a group than they would individually. Behavior is influenced through group dynamics and peer pressure. Because of this, teachers need to manipulate the whole group of students, not just individuals. Redl and Wattenberg believe that in order for teachers to be effective in disciplining students, they must use encouragement and use punishment sparingly. Any punishment that is used should be pre-planned and mildly unpleasant. Students should know the consequences of inappropriate behaviors and quietly adhere to the outcomes of their actions (Charles,
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Lee and Marlene Canter: Assertive discipline
Educators and learners have rights in the classroom. Insist on responsible behaviour. Use hierarchical list of consequences and encouragements, rather than praise.

6. Rudolph Dreikurs: Democratic teaching
Misbehaviour results from four major causes or mistaken goals. Democratic teaching, logical consequences and encouragement, rather than praise.
The reaction of teachers to students' misguided goal-seeking behavior can be instrumental in either reducing or increasing the incidence of misbehavior in the classroom. Avoiding these discipline problems depends to some degree on teachers' personalities. Different teachers tend to react to their students in different ways, and their reactions produce different results. Dreikurs identifies three tyes of teachers: autocratic, permissive, and democratic (Charles, 1992).
1. Teachers attempt to ascertain students' motives.
2. Students are helped to understand their motives.
3. Students are helped to exchange their mistaken goals for useful ones. 4. Students are encouraged to become committed to their new goal orientation.
5. Students are taught to apply logical consequences.
6. Group discussions regarding class rules and problems are
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