Psychology is the scientific study of how we think, feel and behave. There are five main approaches to Psychology with each one having its own strengths and weaknesses. Each idea has its own view for the reasons why we behave the way we do and they all add something to our understanding of human behaviour. One of the on-going debates in psychology is over nature versus nurture. Behaviour Theory The Behaviourism approach is slightly different to the other approaches as it believes all our behaviour is learnt, and the interaction we have with our environment makes us who we are.
Thus, he coined the term “operant conditioning”. According to his opinion, it means roughly changing of behavior strategy by the use of reinforcement given after the desired response (Skinner, 1948). A close look at his works indicates that B.F. Skinner identified three main types of responses or operant, which can follow behavior. Firstly, it is neutral operants, which are responses from the surrounding environment that neither decrease nor increase the probability of a behavior strategy being repeated. Secondly, it is reinforcers operants.
Basically psychology studies who and what we are, why we are like that, why we act and think like that and what we could be as a person and it’s a nurse job to find out all of this from the patient. It’s a psychologist and also a nurse job to know how the body and mind of a patients work. It has couple differences and similarities with psychology and nursing. The differences are that psychology deals with helping the patient emotionally, and
Sociological theories are often based in implicit moral assumptions, which contrasts with traditional notions of scientific empiricism. Theory is a system of generalized statements about phenomena that researchers wish to explore. Scientific theorists explain and predict the phenomena in question and produce testable results. Religious and philosophical theories are based on certain taken for granted truths and moral assumptions. However, sociological theories are a system of generalized statements about phenomena that researchers wish to evaluate.
When it comes to the science of psychology psychologist are looking deeper into what affects ones behavior and mental health. Looking at the environment, health issues, cognitive, learning, and etc… How does everything affect the overall mental health of a person? 2. Distinguish between a theory, a hypothesis, and an operational definition. They are all part of the second step in scientific method, designing and executing an experiment.
Just as Skinner’s ideas on behaviorism replaced outdated Freudian ideas, an idea formed in the 1960’s would not have an indefinite shelf life. Psychology developed a new train of thought known as the cognitive revolution. A major critic of Skinner is perhaps the most famous linguist of today Noam Chomsky. His cognitive approach caught on and skinners model became incomplete and inadequate. As Luck puts it “Skinner’s explanation for human language as something more than the product of rein forcers and launched an entirely new field of psychology, cognitivism.
7. B. F. Skinner focused on how behavior had its consequences. He used punishment and reinforcement on subjects and they were both major factors. There was a chamber that studied modified behavior using both of these factors. The subject is taken away from the external environment.
Psychology originated from the vague concepts of philosophy but its status gradually evolved overtime to a scientific level. The word ‘psychology’ has Greek roots where ψυχή psukhē refers to the “spirit” or “soul" and -λογία –logia refers to "study of" or "research". Now psychology is defined as a study of the science of the mind and personality. It involves the study of mental processes that effect the behaviour and interactions of humans in life The study of the human mind involving processes like problem solving, creativity, thinking, paying attention, language usage, memory and perception come under cognitive psychology. Cognitive psychology has been integrated into various other modern disciplines of psychological study, including educational psychology, social psychology, personality psychology, abnormal psychology, developmental psychology, and economics.
They also frequently consult with physicians and other psychologists. Current popular research being conducted in this field includes the impact of divorce on children, mind theories, social development, and memory retention and aging. Other organizations where developmental psychologists work include hospitals and medical clinics, mental health hospitals, community centers, convalescent centers, elementary and secondary schools, drug rehabilitation centers, and youth correctional
Psychology can be primarily defined as a type of science. It is the science that encompasses all aspects of the mind especially with regards to thought, conscious and unconscious events as well as behaviour. It is studying the various processes that occur mentally which relate these activities to the brain in terms of intelligence, perception, emotion etc. Psychology is the main field of study having subdivisions that allows individuals to focus on and specialize in an area of psychology such as clinical psychology. This science dates to the early 1870s and the word psychology is the arrangement of two Greek terminologies which are psyche meaning “the study of “and Logos implying that it is the foundation of all” ology’s” for instance biology