The function of enzymes is to speed up reactions by lowering the amount of activation energy needed to get the reaction started. Along with that enzymes can only work in specific temperatures and specific pHs as well. If the temperature or pH is too high or to low, they won 't work as quickly or may not work at all. For enzymes there are two main hypothesizes, these are know as the induced fit hypothesis and the lock and key hypothesis. In the induced fit hypothesis the binding of the substrate changes the shape of the enzyme’s active site.
The effect of pH on the speed of enzyme interaction with substrate chemicals Hypothesis: About pH: If the pH level is less than 5, then the speed of the enzyme reaction will be slower. About temperature: If the temperature stays the same, then the speed of the enzyme reaction will not be completely affected. Background information: The function of enzymes is to speed up the biochemical reaction by lowering the activation energy, they do this by colliding with the substrate. All enzymes are under the class of protein biomolecule. Amino acids are the basic units that are combined to make up an enzyme.
Introduction: For my final lab, I was given the task of producing the coordination complex Tris(Oxalato)Ferrate(III) Trihydrate using the following equation: FeCl3+3K2C2O4H2OK3Fe(C2O4)33H2O(g) +3KCl(aq) As a result, 4.105g of green crystal complex was produced and analyzed based on percent composition. To complete this analysis, four other experiments using titration, visible spectroscopy, ion sensitive electrodes, and dehydration and were used to determine the composition of oxalate, iron, potassium and water in the produced complex. The following report records the the results of these experiments and discusses any finding or errors in the procedure. Experimental Data: When the individual components of the complex were analyzed, it was
Electrophoresis – An Introduction • An analytical technique in which the motion of scattered particles run through a fluid under the influence of uniformly charged field is called electrophoresis. • This phenomenon was first observed by Ferdinand Frederic Reuss followed by Arne Tiselius who won the Nobel Prize in chemistry for his research on electrophoresis, adsorption analysis and his discoveries concerning the complex nature of serum protein. It is a technique used in laboratories in order to separate macromolecules based on molecular size and charge. • This technique applies a negative charge so proteins move towards a positive charge. This is used for both nucleic acids and proteins.
Temperature has an effect on both the structure of the catalase itself and the hydrogen bonds it is designed to cleave. As the temperature increases toward the optimum point, hydrogen bonds loosen, making it easier for catalase to act on hydrogen peroxide molecules. If the temperature increases beyond the optimum point, the enzyme denatures, and its structure is disrupted. In humans, the optimum temperature for catalase is 37 degrees CelsiusRole in Living Organisms Although its ability to break down a toxic molecule such as hydrogen peroxide might make catalase seem to be an indispensable commodity, mice engineered to develop without catalase have a normal physical appearance. Some research has indicated that a lack of catalase can lead to the development of type 2 diabetes.
During this experiment, mitochondria were isolated from 20.2 grams of cauliflower using extraction buffer, filtration through Miracloth, and centrifusion. Twelve samples containing various volumes of mitochondrial suspension, assay buffer, DCIP, sodium azide, and citric acid cycle intermediates were prepared to be read by a spectrophotometer. The inclusion of the dye DCIP allowed for the absorbance of the reactions between the mitochondrial suspension and the TCA cycle intermediates succinate, malonate, and oxalate to be measured, as DCIP turns from blue to colorless as the activity of succinate dehydrogenase increases. Experimental Findings Increasing the number of mitochondria in the reaction did increase the reduction of DCIP relative to the amount of mitochondrial suspension present. Although the overall absorbance increases as more milliliters of mitochondrial suspension is added to a mixture of 0.25 mL of 0.5 mM DCIP, 0.5 mL of 50 mM sodium azide, various volumes of assay buffer (20 mM potassium
Following are the tests used for the identification of bacterial species based on the differences in the biochemical activities of different bacteria. Beta glucouronidase test is used for the identification of Escherichia coli. An enzyme is produced by E.coli which is beta D glucouronidase. Beta d glucouronidase in turn hydrolyzes beta d glucopyranosid uronic derivatives to aglycons and D glucuronic acid. Bile solubility test is used in laboratory for differentiation of alpha hemolytic Streptococci from Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Introduction 1.1 Aim: To determine the kinetic parameters, Vmax and Km, of the alkaline phosphatase enzyme through the determination of the optimum pH and temperature. 1.2 Theory and Principles (General Background): Enzymes are highly specific protein catalysts that are utilised in chemical reactions in biological systems.1 Enzymes, being catalysts, decrease the activation energy required to convert substrates to products. They do this by attaching to the substrate to form an intermediate; the substrate binds to the active site of the enzyme. Then, another or the same enzyme reacts with the intermediate to form the final product.2 The rate of enzyme-catalysed reactions is influenced by different environmental conditions, such as: concentration
The activity of an enzyme is affected by its environmental factors, and any change results in an alteration in the rate of the reaction caused by the enzyme (2). Naturally, the enzymes are adjusted by producing optimum rates of reaction or they adapt to function well in extreme conditions (2). Temperature, pH, and enzyme and substrate concentration all affect enzyme activity. The rate of reaction of an enzyme catalyzed reaction is affected by the difference in enzyme and substrate concentration. Increasing substrate and enzyme concentration will increase the rate of the reaction because more substrate molecules will be colliding with enzyme molecules, resulting in products being formed (1).
An important characteristic used in thin layer chromatography is Rf value. Fig .1: Technique for TLC chromatography Chromatographic Separation of Amino acids The experiment aims to bring about separation of a mixture of amino acids using the technique of thin layer chromatography to separate the amino acids in a given mixture. There are 20 standard amino acids which are a-amino acids. They are made up of two groups and
The purpose of this experiment is to create a complete genomic library of Aliivibrio fisheri through the use of the lux operon. The examination of the lux operon gene occurs through the extraction of the DNA of Aliivibrio fischeri and digest a large piece of DNA to smaller random pieces. The fragment of DNA will later be ligated together in plasmid. Plasmid acts as vectors to transport DNA from one organism to another. The DNA will then run through a UV-visible spectrophotometer to test the absorbance of the extracted DNA.