ABSTRACT Bacterial conjunctivitis occurs in persons of all races, although differences in frequencies may be reflected by geographical variations of pathogen prevalence.The study was therefore taken up to detect the prevalence of bacterial and fungal pathogens causing occular infections and to study their antibiotic resistant profiles. A total of 44 kerato-conjunctivitis samples were collected, out of which, 31/44 (73%) were fungal isolates . The prevalence of fungal isolates was as follows- 7 Aspergillus fumigatus (22.5%), 3 Aspergillus flavus (9.67%), 4 Aspergillus nidulans (12.9%), 7 Aspergillus niger (22.5%), 10 Fusarium sps. (32.25%). A total of 39/44 (86.36%) bacterial isolates were obtained in this study.
The yeast menace refers to the potentially debilitating fungal infection Candidosis, also known as Monilia, Thrush or simply yeast infection. When the ratio of friendly bacteria to Candida (which is a type of yeast) becomes out of balance, then the Candida can proliferate, resulting in Candidosis. There are over 20 types of Candida, but the most common is Candida Albicans. In a healthy digestion system, our colons are populated by a large colony of bacteria which play a role in aiding the final stages of digestion and the manufacture of B vitamins. Usually, around 80% of the bacteria are considered 'friendly' and are primarily of the Lactobacillus Acidophilus variety, whilst the remaining 20% are yeast organisms, Candida Albicans.
Lactic acid is produced by two methods i.e, chemical method and fermentation method. Chemical method utilizes petrochemical resources followed by addition of HCN and specific catalyst to produce lactic acid . While fermentation methods utilizes renewable resources such as carbohydrate in a fermented broth to obtain lactic acid . Optical purity of lactic acid is very important and hense is major addressed problem in production of PLA. Chemical method produces racemic mixture of both D(-) and L(+) lactic acid while fermentation methods produces only one optically pure form of D(-) or L(+) lactic acid
Initially lectins were isolated from plants and later it turns to microorganisms and other animals. Lectin was discovered in castor beans (Ricinus communis) by Stillmark in 1888. From castor bean he extracted a toxic substance named ‘ricin’, which was capable of agglutinating human and some animal blood. An agglutinin from rabbit liver which agglutinate human or lapine erythrocytes found out in 1974 by Stockert et al is the first animal lectin. This lectin recognizes and binds asialo-glycoproteins and is responsible for their uptake and degradation by the liver.
Then the isolation of template DNA and PCR amplification, DNA sequencing, Blasting of the sequence and comparing it with the database of microorganisms in the ncbi page. As a result the bacterial species isolated in the oil reservoir was identified as the Bacillus
In view of this, the isolate was further evaluated for its ability to produce various enzymes like protease, amylase, cellulase and lipase. Isolated Bacillus flexus strain produced cellulose, amylase and protease. The results concluded that the hydrolytic enzymes produced by the Bacillus flexus isolate enabled it towards transforming these complex substrates to simple absorbable metabolites, and making them available for PHA production. Several reports are available in the literature on PHA production by various Bacillus sp. using agro-industrial wastes and surplus materials.
For this experiment I conducted various biochemical tests to identify the given unknown bacteria. The experimental unknowns were 7 different bacteria namely: Bacillus sp., Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus epidermis, Streptococcus lactis, Pseudomonas sp., Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes. Biochemical tests usually interact with the bacterial metabolites (chemical reactions done by the bacteria) to identify a specific bacterium or sometimes a specific genus of
Racemases, isomerases, epimerases, Ligases Catalyze the synthesis of various kinds of bonds with the help of energy containing molecules. Carboxylases, synthetases Table 3: Enzyme classification Oxidoreductases They catalyze the oxidation and reduction reactions that take place within the cell. They are very desirable in the industry because of their ability to catalyze specific types of reactions. They, however, need expensive cofactors. Transferases These enzymes catalyze the transfer of functional groups such as methyl, glycosyl, hydroxymethy and etcetera.
2014). Andersen et al. (2008) did the metabolite profiling and the supported the morphological taxonomic revision. Recently specimens belonging to this species were moved to a new species named A. linariae together with other isolates from Solanaceae, Cucurbitaceae and Scrophulariaceae (Woudenberg et al. 2014).
MICROPROPAGATION IN FICUS ELASTICA SHOOTING AND ROOTING General Information about the plant Ficus (Moreaceae) is a genus that includes plants like rubber Tree, Indian Fig, banyan , peepal etc . The plant is a native species of India , Mayyanmar, Bhutan , Nepal etc. They may grow very large sometimes . Mechanically the plant can be removed only when they are small. The plant grows upto a height of 30 to 45 feet , the plant’s spread is around25 to 30 feet leaf growth rate is fast the plant’s texture is coarse, they are arranged in an alternate manner , leaf type is simple , leaf’s margin is entire, leaf venation is pinnate, brachidodrometype .