Various species of the genus bacillus have been isolated from the faeces of animals. They occur in the alimentary tract of animals (Gibson and Gordon, 1974). Bacillus species are important members of the rumen ecosystem as they assist in the nutrition of the host. Species isolated from the rumen of ruminants include B. licheniformis, B. circulans, B. coagulans, and B. laterosporus (Williams and Withers, 1981, 1983). Bacillus species are not commonly associated with leaves but are occasionally isolated from olive tree leaves (Ercolani, 1978).
All fungal infections can have serious side effects. However, these side effects usually go away once the medication is stopped. The most common side effects of fluconazole and itraconazole are nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhea. More severe infection can be treated initially with an antifungal medication intravenously, as amphotericin B (Abelcet, Amphotec, other). These drugs control the fungus, but sometimes you do not destroy, and relapses may occur.
Enterococci can survive in monoculture, but cause only minor lesions. The outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria contains endotoxin, which is present in all necrotic teeth with periapical lesions, and is able to trigger an inflammatory response even in the absence of viable bacteria. Furthermore, the levels of endotoxin in necrotic root canals are positively correlated to clinical symptoms such as spontaneous pain and tenderness to percussion.85 Virulent Gram-negative anaerobic rods rely on the presence of other bacteria in their environment to survive and establish their full pathogenic potential. Such collections of microorganisms in an extracellular polysaccharide matrix associated with a surface (the inner root canal wall) are called biofilms. There is convincing evidence that microorganisms organized in this manner are far less susceptible to antimicrobial agents than their planktonic counterparts, which have been used by tradition to check the antimicrobial efficacy of substances in
Clostridium perfringens Clostridium perfringens is a bacteria which are Gram-positive, endospore-forming anaerobes, that appear to be rod-shaped. They lack flagella, but they can still migrate across surfaces using a type of gliding motility that involves the formation of filaments of bacteria lined up in an end-to-end conformation. Clostridium perfringens bacteria is most commonly found in soil, and it the intestinal tracts of humans and animals. (1,2) C. perfringens most commonly causes food poisoning, and various types of gangrene, infections from this bacteria can cause necrosis, bacteremia, and emphysematous cholecystitis. Back before the 1890’s Clostridium perfringens used to be known as Clostridium welchii.
Inducing Prodigiosin Transposon mutagenesis in Serratia Marcescens Introduction Serratia Marcescens is an opportunistic pathogen, mainly of healthcare facilities but can also be found in many diverse environments. Serratia is a gram negative bacteria which can give it innate resistance to certain antibiotics, especially those that target peptidoglycan cell wall synthesis, due to its outer membrane. In an environment with different microorganisms competing for food Serratia holds a component that gives it another selective advantage. The bacteria contains a red pigment called prodigiosin, that has antibacterial, antifungal, and even antiprotozoal activity. The pigment is produced due to quorum sensing of bacteria, when an appropriate level of N-hex anoyl-L-homoserine lactone (HHL),
The anti-inflammatory nature of melatonin connects it with the immune system. It also helps in fighting with many infectious diseases. Melatonin acts on the immune responses through production of oxidative stress and cytokine modulation. It is less toxic so is prescribed by most of the clinicians during inflammation. Its overconsumption can suppress the steroidal effect and so it should be controlled.
Most antibiotics including penicillin attack the cell wall of the bacteria that prevents them from synthesizing peptidoglycan which is a molecule that provides the bacteria strength to survive in the human body. However, there are multiple ways on how an antibiotic affects the peptidoglycan. For example is vancomycin, it affects the peptidoglycan but not in same manner as penicillin. A different class of antibiotics called quinolones targets DNA gyrase which unwinds DNA for replication. Since DNA can unwind because of the removal of the enzymes that do that bacteria can’t multiply.
18.104.22.168 DICLOFENAC It is a non-steroidal anti- inflammatory drug (NSAID) used for the treatment of inflammation and can also be used as an analgesic. It is supplied as or contained in medication under a variety of trade names. Inhibition of prostaglandin production is the primary mechanism responsible for its anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic action. It also appears to exhibit bacteriostatic activity by inhibiting bacterial DNA synthesis (Bhalaet al., 2013). It also affects the function of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in vitro, thereforereducing superoxide toxic radical formation, chemotaxis, oxygen-derived free radical generation and neutral protease production(Mahgoub, 2002).
This is a prescription drug that works by blocking a bacterial protein from being formed. It works by binding to certain units of the bacterial protein and thus stops the bacterial protein from growing, thereby treating bacterial infections such oral Chlamydia. Doxycycline comes in various forms and is available in a tablet, a capsule, and a suspension variant. Doxycycline is usually, prescribed to be taken twice per day for about one
The taste, smell antimicrobial properties of these substances are derived from compounds known as phytochemicals (secondary metabolites) present in the substance that inhibit growth of bacteria (Avato et al. 2002). The presence of a benzene functional group and sulfur may be an important component of the antimicrobial mechanism (Agabalogun, L et al). Presently, approximately 80% of the world population relies on botanical derived medicines as they are considered safe, free of side effects, effective against bacterial ailments and do not pose threat of bacterial resistance (Hora and Nair.1944). In this experiment, the antimicrobial properties of the powdered forms of three widely used Indian spices: Turmeric (Curcuma longa), Indian Lilac/Neem (Azadirachta indica), Ginger (Zinhiber officinale), Asafetida (Gumm oleoresin) was further investigated.