Bacteria And Archaea Similarities

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The living organisms are classified into different groups by means of their differences and similarities. Two of the major/ most important groups are the prokaryotes (Bacteria and Archaea) and eukaryotes (from plants, animals till malaria parasites and fungi). The difference between them is that eukaryotic cells contain membrane-bound organelles, such as the nucleus, whereas the prokaryotic cells don’t. There is also a difference in their cellular structure due to the lack of chloroplast, cell wall and mitochondria in the prokaryotic cells. Furthermore, the DNA material comes in different forms, the DNA of eukaryotic cells comes in forms of chromosomes while the DNA of the prokaryotic cells comes in forms of plasmids (a circular and double-stranded…show more content…
Around the 1970s scientists, after a thorough analyze of the cell wall and other features of the archaea, distinguished the differences in their composition. Archaea’s cell wall is composed of pseudo peptidoglycan (in the lack of peptidoglycan) while bacteria’s wall is composed of peptidoglycan- that helps in signaling other bacteria and protects pathogenic bacteria from host’s defenses. Both of these prokaryotes have ribosomes but they differ in shape. Archaea have a three RNA polymerase instead of one, what makes them more comparable to eukaryotes in this case. Another significant difference is that bacteria’s membrane is composed of ester bond while archaea’s membrane is composed of ether bonds. Archaea’s cell membrane is composed of unique type of lipids that lack the fatty acids, and to replace them they have units of…show more content…
Their living conditions are different form one another but yet very extreme, they live in places we think as impossible to live in. Archaea are also considered as extremophiles, that live in places such as marshlands, oceans, hot springs, humans etc. Whereas bacteria are omnipresent, they live in biofilms such as inside human intestine or inside water pipes in human’s teeth; but also in places as soil, animal/plant body, oceans and Antarctic lakes, volcanoes etc. In the article “Bacteria ‘R’ us” two conducted researches are pointed out one done by the University of Cardiff, Wales and the other one by the Oregon State University. In those researches they did surveys, in places like Mexico and Washington’s coast and under the oceans, and saw that due to bacteria’s adaptably their biomass may exceed that of life in oceans. Bacteria also prospers by creating a symbiotic relationship with other plans, like the plants which enable them to convert atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia. Symbiotic bacteria also play a significant role in producing vitamins and breaking down food that contains

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