Relebogile Moloko 1155553 Introductory life sciences Assignment 1 Prokaryotes and eukaryotes are two different levels of cells. Prokaryotes are cells that do not have a membrane bound nucleus or organelles sounded by membranes and eukaryotes are cells that have a membrane bound nucleus as well as membrane bound organelle. They have obvious structural differences which result in differences functions and cell efficiency. From my research, I have observed that eukaryotes have structural advantages over prokaryotes. This essay will be discussing the differences in the two cells with reference to the metabolic processes and storage of genetic information.
The streaking technique used was a modified streaking for isolation with a heavy quadrant one. The result revealed that bacteria is alpha, with an incomplete breakdown of the medium with a susceptibility of 17mm from the bacitracin gamma hemolysis. That is why the organism represented by the bar graph was in low numbers because it was incomplete. The other test was DNase agar, it is an enzyme test used to identify if the organism has the enzyme DNA. The streaking technique is a single straight line down the middle of the plate.
Bacterium growth on various agar plates Introduction The purpose of this experiment is to show different agar plates inhibit or enable growth of different organisms. Some varieties of media enable the grow of a wide range of organisms such as nutrient agar. Other media are selective which means they contain specific nutrients to encourage the growth of certain organisms. This means other organisms will die due to the selective nutrients such as high concentration of salt which will cause plasmolysis. Differential organisms require different nutrients which show it is fairly easy to isolate and identify organisms by using selective media.
A virus is a type of microbe that consists of two parts: a small genome of either single-stranded or double-stranded DNA or RNA, and a protein coat called a capsid which protects the genome. It is debatable whether or not viruses are living organisms because of their structures and functions; however, according to the characteristics of what makes an organism truly living, including nutrition, respiration, movement, excretion, growth, reproduction, and homeostasis, viruses are not actually alive (Kadhila). Because of their simple structure, it is possible that viruses could be the basis of modern cells, but their lack of basic characteristics, such as respiration, reproduction, and movement, means they cannot possibly be living creatures. Respiration is the process by which an organism creates energy that it can use for various processes. An organism can obtain the organic molecules it needs to produce its energy either through autotrophy or heterotrophy.
The cause of this pickiness is the strain 's ability to produce and respond to extracellular signals. For example alpha cells excrete a oligopeptide pheromone “alpha factor” which causes cells to stop in the cell cycle just before the start of DNA replication (Hicks 1973). Yeast cells can also switch between mating types during the growth of a clone of homothallic cells, This process follows several rules, firstly being that when the cell splits, it produces two cells of either the same type as the mother cell, or two cells of the opposite type. Second, the ability to make cells of different mating types is restricted to “experienced cells” or cells that have split before. This means that spores or buds rarely if ever produce cells of a different mating type.
Chapter Vitamin B12 Absorption and Transport in Human Body Omar Abuyaman, MSc Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Aarhus University hospital, Aarhus, Denmark. Abstract Mammals are unable to synthesize B12. Instead, they have a sophisticated multistep pathway for specific and efficient transport of this vitamin from its food source to the target body cells. Dysfunction at any of transport steps may lead to low vitamin B12 status or deficiency. Introduction The transport of B12 from its food source to reach the body cells is mediated by a complex set of carrier proteins, receptors and transporters .
The LCHF provides insights into past mantle geochemistry and presents a better understanding of the chemical compositions that existed during the evolutionary transitioning, from geochemical processes to biochemical processes (Baker & German, 2004). However, there is a reason to doubt the origin of life from hydrothermal vents. One of the main arguments against the origin of life from the deep sea, is the fact that so many macromolecules are found in biology. Molecules such as DNA, RNA, proteins and lipids are all polymers and form via condensation reactions – a wet environment is required for molecules to mix, but water then needs to be removed in order to form a polymer (Da Silva,
Biological classification is the scientific procedure of arrangement of living organism into groups. It is done on the basis of their similarities and dissimilarities and placing the groups in a hierarchy of categories. The first pioneer work on biological classification was done by Linnaeus. He classified living organisms into the two kingdoms, i.e Plantae and Animalia. But this classification system proved to be inadequate as there were many organisms that did not fall into any of the categories.
Also many believe that genetic engineering is unethical as manipulating DNA is unnatural. DNA FINGERPRINTING Principle: Everyone has a unique DNA fingerprint so this method is used to distinguish and identify people. A similar process which uses PCR as opposed to restriction enzymes is DNA profiling or STR analysis (uses micro satellites instead of mini satellites as they have less base pairs). Procedure: DNA is extracted e.g.. from blood, saliva, hair etc. Restriction enzymes cut the DNA resulting in varied lengths which are separated according to size.
Introduction Genetic engineering or genetic modification is the manipulation of a more advanced master program, genes. It is often the addition or removal of specific favoured genes from a species and implanted in a totally unrelated species. These genes can come from animals, bacteria, viruses and even food and plants. Genetic engineering proved the statement that one gene carries only one property wrong. A gene is dependent on its location and the interactions it has with other genes in its master program.