99). There are three structures involved in the information processing model; sensory register, short-term store and long-term store (Tangen & Borders 2017, p. 99). The sensory model is a way of attaining information through any of the five senses; smell, sound, taste, sight and touch (Tangen & Borders 2017, p. 101). Most information attained through the senses only lasts for up to three seconds (Tangen & Borders 2017, p. 101). However, if attention is paid to the information, it can be processed to the short-term store/ short term memory (Tangen & Borders 2017, p. 101). If information stored in the short-term memory is not learned and given attention, it will decay over time (Schunk 2012, p. 183). The short-term memory has a small capacity, and large amounts of information cannot all be stored (Schunk 2012, p. 183). To make it esier, information can be shortened or broken up to fit it in the short-term memory (Schunk 2012, p. 183). Information that is used will be transferred into the long-term store/ long-term memory (Schunk 2012, p. 183). There are different strategies to strengthen the memory of information from short-term to long-term. This can be done through repetition, relating it to information already known and organising information into meaningful units (Tangen & Borders 2017, p. 103). The long-term memory is a permanent supply of learnt
Working memory of humans is one of the most important functions in the human psyche. It allows one to activate and encode a set of mental images for further manipulation and processing within a short period of time (Carruthers, 2013). Working memory is essential for assuming the challenges of the daily lifestyle as well as academic tasks namely reading or arithmetic activities. Therefore, working memory is important for cognitive and academic development throughout childhood. Current studies have shown that working memory in patients diagnosed with developmental absence of the corpus callosum, is highly affected and shows it through different domains such as intellectual functioning and academic functioning.
1. Flashbulb memories are very detailed and vivid reconstructive memories that are usually linked with emotion and last a lifetime. Originally, flashbulb memories were thought to be very accurate and uneasily forgotten. One of the first studies ever done on flashbulb memories was Brown and Kulik (1977). They wanted to investigate if flashbulb memories were as accurate as everyone hypothesized they were. They had 80 participants in their study. Each participant was asked to recall memories that were linked to a shocking event. The results were that participants were able to recall the memories vividly and with much detail. Memories that were linked with a high level of emotion such as the assassination of JFK or a death of a relative caused
This study was interesting, because it explored an interest in a fairly common yet widely underestimated cognitive mishap. Everyone has encountered a ‘tip of the tongue’ moment and been struck by its recovery at the most odd of moments later. In my opinion, it did test cognition in a meaningful way, in that it further explored the phonological system within the human brain.
The model represented in stimulus 2, by Baddeley and Hitch (1974) is a Working memory which is an active store, that holds and manipulates information in our conscious thoughts. This stimulus illustrates the structure of working memory in terms of three components which comprises the phonological loop, the visuo-spatial sketchpad, and the central executive. These 3 components are separate, but they also interrelate. The phonological loop is a verbal working memory that comprises two sub-systems which hold the phonological store and the visuo-spatial sketchpad. The phonological loop which is the 'inner voice ' contains information we want to maintain in our STM before verbally communicating
Working memory is one of the models that describe how memory processes information. Alan Baddeley and Graham Hitch made this model in 1974 to show that the Short Term Memory(STM) rather complex; the model was derived from the multi store model produced by Atkinson-Shiffrin 1968. Which suggests the memory has three stores, the sensory, short term and long term. The working memory model consist of four sectors the Central Executive is the main important component which controls the other elements of the model. The model is controlled automatically by stimuli from the environment and also be able to create new strategies when the old ones are insufficient; in addition
Abrams’ (2008) explained the speech process is initiated by a nonverbal message, which is described as a general idea of what an individual wants to say. Subsequently, words are selected to translate the message, this is referred to as a lexical access. The lexical access is defined by two processes known as the lemma and phonology. The lemma contains the syntax, or the grammatical context of the word, in addition to the semantics, or meanings of the words. The sounds that form to create the word are known as the phonology of the word. Abrams (2008) explained TOT states occur when the lemma is selected but the phonology is absent. According to Abrams (2008) there are three foremost causes of TOT states: low frequency of use, lack of recent use, and normal aging. Abrams (2008) and her graduate students conducted several studies to learn more about the mechanisms behind TOT
The classic model of working memory was proposed by Baddeley and Hitch in 1974 (Courtney, Ungerleider, Keil & Haxby, 1996). Working memory is responsible for the maintenance and controlled manipulation of information before it can be recollected (Aben, Stapert & Blokland, 2012). Baddeley and Hitch had proposed that working memory consisted of three key components; the central executive, phonological loop, and the visuospatial sketchpad (Aben, Stapert, & Blockland, 2012). The central executive is primarily responsible for reasoning, decision making, and the coordination of operations of the phonological loop and visuospatial sketchpad, and dual-task performance (Logie, 1995). The phonological loop is responsible for the storage and manipulation
Evidence does suggest that the Phonological loop is made up of two components which are the phonological loop and the Articulatory Control process, the evidence suggests the phonological similarity effect, unattended speech effect, word length effect, articulatory suppression experiments and also including neuropsychological evidence. The Phonological store, is passive and also stores information in a coded form, the use in involuntary, as information decays in about two seconds if no rehearsal takes place, a small bugger for linguistic information. The phonological coding which would be the speech sounds, would be identical coding for
The aim of the experiments was to demonstrate interference in serial verbal reactions with time taken to do a task. Seventy (14 males and 56 females) college undergraduates took part in the experiments. There were two different conditions in the first condition the participants read words printed in black and the second condition participants read colour word that was printed in a different colour. The results of this experiment show that there was no significant different in the time taken to read the words in the two conditions. Stroop hypothesis was that response time between stimulus and response will be longer when the font name and colour are different. Due to the results from the first experiment being insignificant Stroop conducted a second experiment that was slightly different. Participants were told to name colours rather than read words. There were again two conditions, the first condition participants said the colour of the coloured square and in the second conditions the participants read a word list printed in incongruent colours and said the colour of the ink and not the word. The results show that many participants took longer to do the second condition compared to the first. Many participants made more mistakes doing the second list as they were saying the word not the ink colour. Stroop on average found that it took the participants 74% more time to understand the name ink colours of the corresponding words (Stroop,
People’s working memory slowly declines over time and can greatly be seen when the memory involves speed processing, episodic, long-term memory. But by exercising out brains we can keep our memory, at least some parts from declining as rapidly or till later in life. Alzheimer’s Disease begins be looking like someone is just get old and are forgetting where things are. I personally sometime forget where I park my car on campus some days especially, if I don’t park in my usual spot it takes me a few second to have to think of where I parked that day. The people with Alzheimer’s starts forgetting words and remembering the new things, like names. One of my patients for some reason always though my name was Peach, I would correct him every day and I even wore a name tag, but he for some reason could never remember my name or it was Peach instead of Paige. This sometime happens with normal memory people can create those long term
Human reaction time is a measurement of the time it takes a person to react mentally and physically to a stimulus. The concept has been extensively studied due to the great inconsistency in reaction time in different situations. The reason for this has been called interference as some variable interferes with a person’s ability to efficiently and appropriately responds to a stimulus. A psychologist that studied this is J. R. Stroop, the man behind the theory of the Stroop effect. The Stroop effect demonstrates that reaction time is longer for naming ink colour of a word than it is for reading the word itself. This is, arguably, due to parallel processing, which complicates multitasking. Parallel processing is simultaneous processing
Across the literature, the relationship between working memory and attention are interconnected and overlapping concepts that rely on one another to properly perform cognitive processes. In order to perceiving the environment one must selectively process this information, known as attention, and have the capacity to retain the relevant information, known as working memory. With a large body of research supporting the positive effects mindfulness can have on working memory, several researchers have set forth to understand the mediating role attention plays in this relationship.
They suggested that past demonstrations of the word length effect, the finding that words with fewer syllables are recalled better than words with more syllables, included a confound: the short words had more orthographic neighbours than the long words. They wanted to test if the neighbourhood size is a more important factor than word length. Therefore, they tested two predictions that arise out of an account that attributes word length effects to neighbourhood size rather than to length per se: (1) The neighbourhood size effect, like the word length effect, should be eliminated if subjects engage in concurrent articulation. (2) Long items with a large neighbourhood size should be recalled better than short items with a small neighbourhood size.
They proposed that memory is just a by-product of the depth of processing of information, and there is no clear distinction between short term memory and long term memory. Therefore the memory is enhanced more by depth of processing than by how long information is rehearsed. To understand their theory, it is also important to understand Levels of Processing (LOP). There are three levels of processing: Structural level of processing- this processing looks at a factor in means of its physical shape; Phonological level of processing- this processing is about how does the word sounds; Semantic level of processing- this processing is about what does the participant extracts the meaning of a word they are asked. Craik and Lockhart also