Concentrate the methylene chloride solution of benzyl alcohol by using distillation assembly placed in a water bath, until the volume of the residual liquid reduced to half volume. 4. Cool the remaining liquid, transfer it to a separatory funnel and shake it thoroughly with two 1 mL portions of 20% aqueous sodium bisulfite to remove any benzaldehyde. Wash the methylene chloride solution finally with two 1 mL portions of water and dry it with 0.5-1 g of anhydrous magnesium sulfate. 5.
Sodium carbonate, known for being found in soaps in glass, is soluble when mixed with water. When in its pure form, it is a white, odorless powder that can absorb moisture from the air (Sodium). On the other hand, calcium chloride can be used to melt ice on the roads, control dust, and act as a preservative for foods. It too rapidly absorbs water, but is a crystalline, lumpy or flaky texture that is usually white and quite soluble in water (Calcium). To understand this lab completely, it is important to know the concepts limiting and excess reactant.
TEL 01137830-A L.A GRAAF, B Pharm. After hours 0374904 4.3 Paediatric powder. Aim To prepare a paediatric paracetamol each pack containing 0.25g powder. Theory Paracetamol- A white powder, odourless, should be stored in a well ventilated place.10 Codeine phosphate – A white powdered solid, odourless, partially soluble in menthanol, insoluble in diethyl ether, soluble in cold water. Should be stored in an airtight container.11 Lactose ad – A white slightly sweet odourless powder used mostly to bulk powder up, should be stored in an airtight container.12 Formula Original Working Rx Paracetamol 50mg 1.0g Codeine phosphate 5mg 0.1g Lactose ad 250mg 5.0g Method 1.
It also releases SO2 which acts as preservative. Liquids vanillin and vanilla Powder: Flavor is very important for baking industry as it performs the following functions: • Gives a rich appetizing taste to the product • It has a stimulating effect on digestive function • It makes a product having uniform taste. Skimmed milk powder (SMP): It contains lactose, which is a reducing sugar that combines with protein by maillard reaction at high temperature during baking and imparts attractive color and surface bloom if SMP is well dispersed thoroughly in cold water before incorporation in the formula. Moisture- 4.0% maximum Solubility- 98.5% Color- white • SMP combines with the gluten in wheat to produce soft and moist dough for baking. • It increases the nutritive value.
The saponification (a reaction in making soap) process is a base (usually NaOH or KOH) hydrolysis of triglycerides to make salt (soap) and glycerol. Alkalis such as Sodium carbonate and Sodium hydroxide are used to neutralize the fatty acid and convert it to a salt. The molecules crystallize differently depending on the base used. NaOH produces a harder bar while KOH is used more frequently for liquid soaps. In some cases, Lithium soaps are formed and produce much harder soaps.
Generally, the carbon dioxide is added to the saturator in two stages, the gassing carried out in the first saturator, the impurities are absorbed, the particles of CaCO3 precipitatedby the reaction of Ca(OH)2 and CO2. The reaction is; Ca(OH)2 + CO2 CaCO3 + H2O 3.2 Process Description: Sugar mill carbonation: After the mill crushes, shreds, or presses the cane or beets to extract juice, it adds calcium oxide (milk of lime). The calcium oxide raises the juice to 11 Ph. or more. The water in the juice react with the calcium oxide to form calcium hydroxide.
• Carefully decant the solvent solution from the drying agent through the funnel into the flask. Rinse the Erlenmeyer flask with about 10 ml of solvent and pour the solvent through the funnel, too. Remove the funnel, add two or three boiling chips and reattach the thermometer and adapter to the still pot. • Discard the magnesium sulfate remaining in the Erlenmeyer flask by dissolving it in tap water and pouring the solution down the drain. • Before beginning the distillation, weigh a clean, dry 1 narrow mouth screw cap bottle on a balance.
Table 3: Uses of sodium lauryl sulfate. Use Concentration (%) Anionic emulsifier, forms self-emulsifying bases with fatty alcohols 0.5–2.5 Detergent in medicated shampoos ≈10 Skin cleanser in topical applications 1 Solubilizer in concentrations greater than critical micelle concentration >0.0025 Tablet lubricant 1.0–2.0 Wetting agent in dentrifices 1.0–2.0 It is a detergent and wetting agent effective in both alkaline and acidic conditions. Description: Sodium lauryl sulfate consists of white or cream to pale yellow-colored crystals, flakes, or powder having a smooth feel, a soapy, bitter taste, and a faint odor of fatty substances. Typical Properties: • Acidity / alkalinity : pH = 7.0–9.5 (1% w/v aqueous solution) • Acid value : 0 • Antimicrobial activity : Sodium lauryl sulfate has some bacteriostatic action against Gram-positive bacteria but is ineffective against many Gram-negative microorganisms. It potentiates the fungicidal activity of certain substances such as sulfanilamide and sulfathiazole.
All manufacture of paracetamol follows PNCB process route. Manufacturers of paracetamol in India use PNCB route and iron / hydrogen reduction to obtain Para amino phenol (PAP), an intermediate for paracetamol. Chlorobenzene with hydrolysis is carried out by the reaction of 9% caustic soda solution with pnitrochlorobenzene. The reaction mass is filtered and with appropriate process control and proper design of the reactor, the yields are optimized, leading into lower requirement of inputs and production of lower quantities of effluent. The sodium salt of p-nitrophenol is treated with concentrated sulphuric acid at 35-45°C.