To further study caffeine content of soft drinks we use the HPLC to determine it. We use the reverse phase HPLC method where the mobile phase is polar and the stationary phase is non polar. The sample would be injected in a pump and pressurized by a liquid. The substance is move in the mobile phase and goes to a column.Thus it can be adjusted in order to affect a particular analyte that will interact with each other. From these results, the chromatogram, tR, measurement of retention time, peak area are made.
Evaluation of Preformulation parameters: The Esomeprazole powders / pellets were evaluated for angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, carr’s index and Hausner’s ratio. From the results of micrometrics studies drug shows good flow property and compressibility property. In vitro dissolution
 reported a method that ensures intimate mixing of the reactants at a molecular level. This method is called the solution-derived precursor method or simply the solution route method. In this method, reactants or the precursors are taken through a solution phase that would eventually enable the precipitation of new phases in a nano-structured form . Synthesizing nanocrystalline materials can offer that advantage of improving or giving new properties such as higher fracture and toughness . This procedure was followed and was slightly modified in the present study for the preparation of bulk and supported molybdenum carbide catalysts.
Introduction The purpose of this experiment was to purify acetanilide that was contaminated with relatively small amounts of impurities using recrystallization. The success of recrystallization was dependent on a suitable solvent being chosen and proper recrystallization technique being carried out. The solvent chosen had to have a different polarity than that of the molecule of interest. The technique used was dependent on the solubility of the solvent at higher temperature and the solubility of the impurities at all temperatures. To analyze the acetanilide product of the reaction, 1H NMR and IR were used.
For example, antibacterial activity of cetylpyridinium chloride was decreased when magnesium stearate was used as lubricants in tablet containing cetylpyridinium chloride; this was due to adsorption of cetylpyridinium cation by stearate anion on magnesium stearate particle. In one of the investigation, it was observed that dissolution of drug was decreased due to adsorption of drug on the surface of microcrystalline cellulose. In a similar context, adsorption of novel k-opoid agonist by microcrystalline cellulose led to incomplete drug release from the capsules. Adsorption may also initiate chemical breakdown. Colloidal silica was shown to catalyze nitrozepam degradation in tablet dosage form, possibly by adsorptive interactions altering electron density in the vicinity of the labile azo group and thus facilitating attack by hydrolyzing entities.
Fiber SPME is a new sample preparation technique using a fused-silica fiber coated on the outside with an appropriate stationary phase. In-tube SPME is suitable for automation, and extraction, desorption and injection can be done continuously using a standard autosampler. Drawing and ejection of the sample solution, switching of the valves, control of peripheral equipment such as the HPLC and MSD, and analytical data processing are all computer controlled. (9) Application SPME is widely applied in pharmaceutical analysis. The types of compounds that can be analysed by SPME range from non-polar to semi-polar materials due to the different sorbent materials available.
5.2.3 Incorporation of Emulsion into Gel base For preparation of emulgel, the obtained emulsion was mixed with gel in 1:1 ratio with gentle stirring. During mixing of emulgel, glutaraaldehyde was mixed to obtain the emulgel (Figure 5.1). Fig 5.1: Flow chart for preparation of Emulgel 5.3 OPTIMIZATION OF AZATHIOPRINE LOADED EMULGEL Various process variables like gelling agent concentration, oil and emulsifier concentration which could affect the preparation and properties of emulgel were identified and studied. 5.3.1 Effect of varying Gelling Agent concentration Emulgel was prepared using varying concentration of gelling agent via 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 gm while keeping other variables constant by method reported in section. The effect of varying gelling agent concentration on viscosity and drug content are reported in Table 5.1 and shown in Figure 5.2 and 5.3 respectively.
For analgesic activity aspirin and for anti-inflammatory activities diclofenac was used as standard drugs. It was found that petroleum ether extract showed significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. Further it was reported that the steroids and flavonoids in petroleum ether extract of Phaseolus vulgaris Linn., seeds are responsible for the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. Antimutagenic activity For the experiment with the bean extract, a dose of 300 mg/plate of Ellagic acid (EA) were chosen as the antimutagenic control. The plate-incorporation test of the Salmonella mutagenicity assay was used to study the effect of phenolic compounds extracted from common beans against 1-NP (1-nitropyrene) and B[a] P benzo[a] pyrene mutagenicity.
It is a selective differential medium for Listeria spp. and used in the preliminary enrichment step for the isolation of L. monocytogenes from foods. In this medium, there are peptone, yeast extract, and starch provide nitrogen, vitamins, minerals, and cofactors required for growth of Listeria spp. while sodium chloride maintains the osmotic equilibrium of the medium. PALCAM media agar is highly selective due to the presence of lithium chloride, ceftazidime, polymyxin B and acriflavine hydrochloride, which suppress growth of most non-Listeria spp.
Preformulation yields basic knowledge necessary to develop suitable formulation for the toxicological use. It gives information needed to define the nature of the drug substance and provide frame work for the drug combination with pharmaceutical excipients in the dosage form. The following preformulation studies were performed. 1. Bulk Density (Db): It is the ratio of total mass of powder to the bulk volume of powder.