Therefore, finding an explanation through psychology, for the different specific reactions that human beings exhibit is important. Social psychology is an important sector of psychology that takes interpersonal relationships into consideration. Over the years, many theories have been developed to aid in explaining human behavior, especially ones that administer social experiences. The main focus of this assignment is the analysis of the cognitive dissonance theory in social psychology. Cognitive dissonance theory attempts to explain the human behavior through cognition, in which individuals always look for stability in their attitudes and behaviors (Festinger, 1985).
2.2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 2.2.1 Social learning theory This a theory postulated by Albert Bandura, the theory suggests that much learning takes place through observing the behaviors of others. This theory acknowledges that human beings are capable of cognition or thinking and that they can benefit from observation and experience. Social learning theory recognizes that much of human learning takes place through watching other people model various behaviors. Social learning focuses on the learning that occurs within a social context. It considers how people learn from one another, encompassing such concepts as observational learning, imitation and modelling (McLeod, 2011).
I believe that both are valid, and both can help to explain why we do what we do. Erikson’s theory has definite stages that need to be positively resolved and Bandura simply says that we are what is around us basically. We act according to the framework of our lives. We see things through the filter of our everyday lives. I feel that Erikson’s stages explain more about what we need to achieve in life to be fulfilled during certain ages of our lives.
Brown et.al. (1989) defines ‘learning is a process of enculturation’ (p. 33) where end results are secondary. Another salient element that aligns with the theory is the significance of interactions. As mentioned above, situated cognition employs some form of social interaction like collaborative learning. It also encourages the cognitive apprentice approach where reflective practices of learner (learner-self interaction) and the interaction between the learner and the facilitator are crucial, similar to my personal lens.
TRA also states that people regularly consider the consequences of their behaviors before engaging these behaviors. There are three concepts of TRA: behavioral intention, attitude, and subjective norms. In this model, a behavioral intention serves as the person’s attitude towards the behavior and subjective norms. Subjective norms are the perceived expectations of the individuals such as significant others, family members, experts, and co-workers. Voluntary behavior is predicted by one’s attitude toward the behavior and what important people would think if the behavior was not performed.
A learning theory incorporates principles which aim at explaining changes in human performance, providing a set of instructional strategies, tactics, techniques to select from and the foundation for how and when to choose and integrate the strategies5. Learning theories offer insights into “what promotes learning effectiveness and how students learn”. Learning theories are based on principles that can guide effective teaching practice and facilitate deep versus surface learning”. Thus, to have the disposition that is required to be acquired by the learner, curriculum designers need to consider relevant and appropriate learning theories during curriculum design and implementation. The more learning theories are integrated in the curriculum design process; the more likely learners can be accommodated within the programme.
Learners learn through experiences and exposure I agree with Social constructivism (year) emphasizes the importance of culture and context in understanding what occurs in society and constructing knowledge based on this understanding (Derry, 1999; McMahon, 1997). It is based on a reality, knowledge and learning. I agree with (Piaget 1970) that a learner makes personal meaning of learning based on their prior knowledge which they align it with their learning process and they should be allowed to construct knowledge which is meaningful for them. Social interaction is also very important to build the critical development in learner and teacher always try to scaffold the understanding of learner by helping them through assistance where needed to develop their skills as mentioned by (Vygotsky 1962) gives an idea which relate it to “Zone of Proximal Development”. I had also witness that a student
Opinion Contributions to Cognitivism and behaviorism. In my personal opinion both cognitivism and behaviorism theories can contribute to education, in this part of the paper I’ll discuss the various sides of both theories. The theory of Jean Piaget explains how knowledge is represented in the mind, what operations allow change or evolution of these representations, for him thought is the basis on which learning is based and consisting of mechanisms that the body turns on to adapt to the environment. Using as assimilation; where the body explores the environment and take part of this, transforms and incorporates itself; with actions previously performed previously learned concepts that shape mindsets to allow assimilate new concepts; in
It determines the Impacts of three factors, i.e. "Attitude", “subjective norms” and "perceived behavior control" on tend to behave (Riivari, 2005). In fact, attitude is the general feeling of people about the desirability or undesirability of a particular issue or behavior (Ajzen,
Weick argues that individuals have a need for a sense of identity, as this assists the person in understanding how to act within a given situation. An identity is shaped by how others perceive the individual, or how they wish to be perceived; which will in turn also affect the way in which individuals make sense of their surroundings (Weick, 1995: 22-23). The second property is retrospect that states that reflection on a situation happens after it has been experienced. Individuals make sense of past experiences to give it meaning, and this may affect future behavior (Weick, 1995: 24). The third property is enactment that entails individuals structuring the environments, as the environments structure them.