Barbiturates Research Paper

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1. Cocaine became popular when it started being used for more and more things as its uses became more and more known. Cocaine use originated around 5000 BECAUSE with the Incans of Peru. Cocaine was used as a stimulant to help the natives get through grueling, long, active days of work. As time went on the plant became an integral part of their lives; used as money, an herb and during religious ceremonies. With ancient civilizations came the people that conquered and invaded them, so of course as the Incans were invaded, the coca plant was discovered. The plant was then brought along as the conquerors moved on. A French chemist named Angelo Mariani found the stimulating and anesthetizing qualities of the plant interesting and useful. Mariani…show more content…
Anxiolytics which are similar to sedatives and hypnotics are drugs that work on the central nervous system to treat anxiety and insomnia. The main classes of drugs are benzodiazepines and barbiturates. Barbiturates are a class of drugs that have been derived from barbituric acid. Barbituric acid itself has no therapeutic activity; however, its derivatives enhance the action of GABA, a neurotransmitter that inhibits the activity of nerve cells in the brain. Traditionally, barbiturates were used in the treatment of anxiety, epilepsy, anesthetics, and to induce sleep. However, they have a tendency to cause psychological and physical dependence and there is a fine line between a normal dose and a toxic dose. Nowadays, barbiturates have been largely replaced by safer drugs, although some are still used during surgery or to control seizures. Examples of barbiturates include pentobarbital, phenobarbital, butabarbital, and mephobarbital or Nembutal, luminal, butisol sodium, and mebaral as brand names. Benzodiazepines are a class of agents that work on the central nervous system, acting selectively on gamma-aminobutyric acid-A (GABA-A) receptors in the brain. GABA is a neurotransmitter that inhibits or reduces the activity of nerve cells (neurons) within the brain. Benzodiazepines open GABA-activated chloride channels, and allow chloride ions to enter the neuron. This makes the neuron negatively charged and resistant to excitation, or in other words, resistant to receiving an…show more content…
Ambien is a non-benzodiazepine drug that acts as one by binding selectively to GABA receptors. Ambien (zolpidem) is a sedative, also called a hypnotic. Zolpidem affects chemicals in the brain that may be unbalanced in people with sleep problems insomnia). Ambien is used to treat insomnia. Nervous system side effects most frequently have included visual disturbances, ataxia, and dizziness. Headache, drugged feeling, confusion, anterograde amnesia, excessive sedation, lightheadedness, delirium, nightmares, hallucinations, nervousness, and agitation have also been reported. Chronic use in high doses and subsequent withdrawal may induce grand mal seizures. Cases of falls have been reported in elderly patients. Musculoskeletal side effects including arthralgia and myalgia have been reported, immunologic side effects including infection have been reported, hepatic side effects include one case of hepatotoxicity, Genitourinary side effects including urinary incontinence and urinary tract infection, cardiovascular side effects including palpitations, and respiratory side effects have included respiratory depression which may occur at high doses, may also cause upper or lower respiratory tract infection and rhinitis. Ambien has raised concerns about people doing things in their sleep such as walking, eating, driving, etc. Barbituates and benzodiazepines are considered dangerous by the FDA if not seriously controlled, so a non-benzo that acts as a benzo cannot be considered safer.
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