Step back and observe two cityscapes both similar in subject matter and composition, however unique in style and technique. One canvas is on fire, burning with the influence of impressionistic characteristics while the other stands strong reflecting the glow of the artist’s personal sense of precision. Together, these two paintings show eras that contrast one another and artists who evolved traditional teachings by depicting cities in ways that are now seen as revolutionary. Joseph Mallord William Turner was an English painter in the 18th and 19th century. J.M.W. Turner is more commonly known for his interpretation of natural settings in Western history and for the quality of light in his paintings.
The Civil War thrust several artists into high status and changed the attitudes of such artists. Lewis says that American values changed; the cultural mood of the Post-Civil War had no patience for judging a sentiment-less artwork. There were larger issues at hand: Abolition, secession, and emancipation; new styles of art were trivial in comparison. Realist subjects were still-lifes, portraiture, landscape, and genre painting. Winslow Homer was an artist who made illustrations of battles and soldiers during the Civil War.
Brook also presents the 17th century as being different due to differences within second contact. The author believes second contact falls between two extremes: selective adjustment through mutual influence rather than confrontation and conflict. As an alternative there
Many reformers such as Martin Luther, John Wycliff, and John Calvin played prominent roles in sixteenth-century Europe; they helped to reform Catholic churches and change the Europeans’ ways of thinking. “The Reformation was a rejection of the secular spirit of the Italian Renaissance” is a true statement. The main goal of the religious reformation was to bring back the former beliefs and practices of the Roman Catholic Church, which were based off of the bible; this went against the Renaissance ideas. Martin Luther was one of the many important reformers in sixteenth century Europe. Luther helped to completely change the church systems by writing his 95 theses.
Thus, be standing up against the representative of the Catholic Church, he opened the door of the Protestant reformation. As for Jean Calvin, he is the one that has given an impetus to this period. Indeed, he firstly tried to expand the ideas of the Reformation in Paris but was quickly stopped by some threats. He then was called to Genève where he organized his own
On a beautiful Springlike Sunday in February, the Metropolitan Museum was buzzing with art lovers of all ages. One particular piece of painting; The Fortune Teller (a representation of a vibrant scene executed with oil paint by a Baroque French painter Georges de La Tour) was surrounded by captivated viewers. The skillful portrayal of a true to life imagery with dimensions of 40 1/8 x 48 5/8 inches is filled with moods such as; mystery, wealth, ignorance and cunningness. The painting with its extraordinary three-dimensional visual representation was created in the 1600s. The plot of the Fortune Teller painting tells the story of a naive, arrogant, wealthy looking young man having his destiny read by an elderly woman; the fortune teller.
The catalyst of the English Reformation was quite different than that which occurred in the European mainland. Luther, Calvin, Zwingli, and others, driven by theological convictions birthed in the universities, sought moral, spiritual, and theological reform within the Catholic Church; the English Reformation on the other hand, began in state affairs, more specifically with “the problem of succession to the royal throne.” In an effort to keep ties with Spain strong and to retain the widow’s fortune, Henry VII arranged for his son Henry VIII to marry his brother’s widow, Catherine of Aragon. Since Cannon law prohibited such a union, and according to William Warham, Archbishop of Canterbury, “the will of God himself “ was against it, a papal dispensation was secured and Henry VIII was betrothed to Catherine. Soon after, when Henry VI became ill and his queen died, both the nation and king alike wondered if such events were “divine judgment”, leading some to question, “Was it in the pope’s power to permit what God had forbidden?”
A good example of these themes can be found in the treatment of the Desmond branch by a number of the contributors. Chapters by Robin Frame and Peter Crooks illustrate how the fortunes of the Desmond earls of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries were entwined with English courtly politics. By the sixteenth century, however, the Desmonds had cultivated significant contacts on the Continent in order to protect their patrimony. Thus, they were increasingly viewed with suspicion particularly in light of confessional tensions that plagued Europe after the Reformation. David Edwards’s thought-provoking reassessment of the causes of the second Desmond rebellion refocuses our attention on the tensions between the fourteenth earl of Desmond and the English Queen Elizabeth’s Irish officials.
In France the advancement in scientific thought was limited by the Catholic hegemony over knowledge, while England on the other hand due to the laxing of policing mechanism provided the ideal space for progress in scientific thought. Religion which had played an important role in the advancement of science since the sixteenth century becomes ever more significant in the span of two decades from 1640 to 1660. The moderate Puritan reformers were now being challenged by a number of radical sectarian movements who saw in science the potential to bring about radical changes in the society. The moderate reformers who later established the Royal Society of Science in 1662, had to declare its goal of promoting an organized pursuit of experimental science in order to distance themselves from any attempt at radically reforming the church or the state. The threat of being deemed heretical loomed large over the puritan scientific reformers and they sought to divert it by coming up with the Christianized versions of upcoming scientific theories.
AP European History Chapter Breakdown: Chapter 11 Main overview: The Protestant reformation took place during a time of conflict between the new nation-states of Europe, which was caused by conformity within their areas. As Switzerland’s cantons, or subdivisions began dividing, civil wars began erupting. They were caused by the conflicts between the Catholic and Protestant churches.
The inclusion of the filioque caused major dispute because of the difference between the two churches on the doctrine of the Trinity. Further minor causes of the schism included conflicting claims of jurisdiction, differences over liturgical practices, and relationship of the Church to the Byzantine Christian emperor. Along with these were variations in doctrinal, linguistic, political, liturgical and geographic lines (Papacy, 2015). The language was one of the most obvious factors in the division of the church, with the West speaking Latin, and the East speaking Greek. Naturally, communication between East and West grew much more difficult as the number of individuals who spoke both languages began to diminish (The Great Schism,
Sebastian Castellio best shows this perception in Document 1. The French Theologian paints a direct correlation between the lack of stability of a territory with the advent of differing religions or denominations (Document 1). Castellio’s point of view most likely stems from his experiences as a French Protestant and how his views led to his exile from France and how two religions resulted in a civil war in France. Spain under Philip II also maintained the importance of religious uniformity for political stability and strength. Pere Oroming’s painting of the expulsion of the Moriscos clearly illustrates this concept (Document 6).
He also paved way to a new reformed branch called the puritans, which were concerned of purifying the english church of any catholic influence left. This also resulted in many succession issues as the successors to the throne were catholic and protestants. Also many wars between the branches sprung from there. Whilst they had different initial reasons and they had carried out different actions in order to reform Christianity, they had come to create different branches and set into action the forever going changes in that